# Questions tagged [voltage]

Voltage, otherwise known as electrical potential difference (denoted ∆V and measured in volts) is the difference in electric potential between two points (adapted from Wikipedia). Voltage can be constant (DC) or varying (AC).

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### frequency of MCP3008

I built BOOST CONVERTER, I sample the output voltage with A/D and control it using RASPBERRY Pi3, I set the switching frequency of the BOOST CONVERTER 70KHz, and the frequency of the MCP3008 1.35MHz, ...
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### Arduino Every Nano with 3.7V Li-Po - Reading voltage

I have Arduino Every Nano and 3.7V Li-Po battery (Akyga LP903759). I want to read the current voltage of a battery using analog pin. If I use a 50 kOhm and 200 kOhm resistor (in voltage divider) I'll ...
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### Electrical circuits homework

I am pretty new to circuits analysis and I have the following problem as homework: ig2(t) = 4sin(ωt + π/4), e3(t) = 12sin(ωt + π/4), R1 = 10 Ω, ωL1 = 4 Ω, ωL3 = 3 Ω, 1/(ωC2) = 6 Ω I have to calculate ...
284 views

### Battery failing. Oscilloscope?

The question is - is there an inexpensive oscilloscope I can use to measure DC voltage and current to see why my battery pack is failing to power a DSLR? In order to take long time lapse photos with ...
208 views

### Voltage divider network calculation

Hello I am troubleshooting a voltage divider circuit in which I know the output going to U28 pin 3 should be around 700mv. What I am measuring however is around 7.5v. How do I calculate the v out for ...
2k views

### Transformer maximum voltage rating specifications

I don't know how to interpret the voltage values found in datasheets for transformers. For example, in the datasheet below: where it says 15v, 50mA near the winding schematic. Is this a maximum or a ...
293 views

### Switch bounce vs LC Spike Voltage

For my EE lab, our professor wants us to show switch bounce, and then eliminate it using hardware, and software debouncing. However, I seem to be stuck on finding the switch bounce in the first ...
2k views

### Schematic for a lipo battery bleeder overcharge protector

OK, so I am building a 12v (really 11.1v) 10000mah lipo battery. I am going to use it on campouts to run things like 12v fans and car chargers and run other high-current devices that couldn't be run ...
631 views

### Convert [-24V,24V] range analog signal to [0V,3.3V] range for ADC

I need to realize a circuit that converts an analog signal from [-24V,24V] to [0V,3.3V] before sending that signal to an ADC "MCP3208". I found the circuit in the picture below and it works perfectly ...
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### Question about outdated “amplidyne” technology

Can someone please help me understand something better about "amplidyne" technology that was used back in the day. What I know It appears to be a dc motor generator that acts like an ...
106 views

### The relation between Vin and Vout (diodes circuit)

Can anyone here tell me if the function I found that relates the Vin to Vout is right? So I made a mesh analysis to find the current in the first mesh (left to right) and in the second and got that ...
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### Beginner trying to resolve transistor issues

I have designed a basic transistor circuit with the EveryCircuit simulator. The idea is that when the switch is open, one LED comes on and when the switch is closed the other LED lights up instead. It ...
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### Solar panel simulation for 7 solar cells in series

I have this question about the circuit that I am working on for quite long and it is just not working. Please help, i have already tried every thing i could understand. I followed a YouTube tutorial ...
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### Best way to manage multiple 12V inputs and outputs from Arduino?

For a bowling alley I am going to make a circuit using an Arduino Mega to turn on arrow lights(1-4 bulbs in each) given the bowling pin lights that are lit up at the moment on a masking unit. AMF no ...
58 views

### Is capacitor voltage coefficient a function of frequency?

I have learned that the value of capacitance in a capacitor can vary slightly compared to nominal based on the voltage across it. This is called voltage coefficient of capacitance (VCC) It is actually ...
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### Wiring a siren to an alarm system, siren isn't going off when the alarm is triggerd

Hello I have an alarm system of Jablotron Oasis 80. I want to hard wire a sirene of another brand to it Aritech S290. When the alarm goes off then the beacon of the siren is flashing, but there is no ...
80 views

### Why does my lightbar draw more current when connected to a battery than a power supply

When I measure the current draw of the lights when connected to a car battery, they draw about 2.4A However if I connect the lights to a 12V power supply, they only draw around 0.8A. Even though the ...
118 views

### ESD Capacitor Calculation, 330Ohm Series Resistor and ESD Clamp Voltage

I have a input power filter circuit. It has ESD Protection capacitors which help to protect the downstream circuit from ESD Pulses. ESD Capacitors Specifications : C0001, C0002, C0003, C0004 = 47nF, ...
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### Strange levels on UART TX

I am trying to get the boot chatter from a UART on IOT device. When powered up TX line goes high as expected (3.3V), but when it starts "talking" - scope shows that hi/lo levels swings are ...
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### Replace USB diode with something else to reduce voltage drop

So I've made this circuit with a MOSFET and an Op Amp to select a voltage input to my battery. I sort of based it off the voltage selector circuit on the Arduino Uno board, but inversed since that ...
69 views

### Voltage sensitivity coefficients for unbalanced radial distribution feeders

I am wondering if my implementation of voltage sensitivity coefficients for unbalanced three-phase-four-wire radial distribution feeders is correct. We got $\bar{V}$ for phase(s) of all the buses ...
191 views

### How to estimate the temperature of a filament?

I would like to know how I can estimate/calculate the temperature of a heated filament. For example, the filament (rhenium) is 0.2mm in diameter and heated with a voltage of 6.4V and a current of 2....
209 views

### Step up converter

I built a circuit of boost converter and my input voltages is 6-9 V. I want to get output at the converter 9-12 V. My problem is that I get over 40 V and I do not know why, in the code do I have to ...
400 views

### MOSFET Gate driver - negative voltage with Zener circuit

I was reading about minimizing MOSFET switching loss when I came across an article by Texas Instrument on how to use negative voltage, instead of ground, to faster discharge MOSFET gate capacitance. ...
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### Where does the 1V voltage come from?

I have a four PLC with many digital I/O connected similarly to the schematic below. If I use multi meter and measure the voltage between the two points in the schematic, why is it showing 1V? Isn't it ...
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### Inductive Crankshaft Position Sensor Voltage Drop When Split Between Inputs

I'm working on a project with a vehicle using two engine control modules, which both need accurate crankshaft position signals to function. Adding a second sensor is not an option. The sensor is an ...
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### What causes voltage to increase from 12V to 36V as specified?

Reference article and paragraph: Relays, Selection & Usage (Part 1) - 8 - Latching Relays ...
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### Activating a relay when certain voltage received (Water injection system)

I decided to build a simple water/methanol injection system for my car and now I'm thinking about a simple way to activate the water pump only from certain boost level. For the boost reading I'm ...
84 views

### Voltage increase by connecting Voltmeter

I've got this scheme. V1 and V2 are voltmeters without their own power supply. (V1 gets power from the measured circuit, V2 is powered separately, but in this case from the same power supply.) The ...
209 views

### Dayton furnace blower wiring help

I bought the new Dayton 3 phase 208/230vac blower model #3HMJ8. There is 3 wires red/white/black and next to the diagram for each wire on the blower is a letter. I don’t know what these letters mean....
734 views

### setting a trimpot on a power supply

I'm creating a power supply circuit to regulate the power from a 12V power source to sap flow sensors that will be installed in a tree. I have a protocol and circuit diagram I am following but am ...
1k views

### Common audio signal voltage range on Line out connector

What is typical audio signal voltage range on Line out connector of consumer electronic devices? (Vmin/Vmax) I need specify Input voltage range to calculate op-amp. ...
2k views

### Datasheet for Keyes IR Transmitter (KY-005) wanted

Can someone help me find the datasheet for the Keyes IR Transmitter (KY-005)? I know how the pins work, I just need to figure out its voltage drop and how much current should go through it. Thanks! :...
460 views

### Voltage Translator (74HC4050) Voltage Fluctuations

I have a simple circuit with a simple problem that I just can not fix. I have a 74HC4050D hooked up to an SD card. I have a 0.1uf on the 5V line and 2.2uf on the 3.3V line. Whenever a signal is sent ...
2k views

### PSpice VSIN frequency - how to set it in rad/s?

I know, that if I want to set FREQ, I need to set it in Hz, not in rad/s. I know, that 1 Hz = 2*pi rad/s, but how to do this in PSpice? What should I enter exactly? and btw. if I want to set VOFF (...
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### How do you output whole number voltages (1-4V) from an Arduino/5V source using only digital pins and passive components?

I would like to output whole number voltages 0V,1V,2V,3V and 4V from two digital pins on an arduino/5V source. A simple r2r ladder doesn't seem like it would work because it would split its definition ...
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### Is there a pattern to where various industrial AC voltages are used?

AC voltages in the "low voltage" class vary quite a bit. I've seen nominal voltages of 208, 220-240, 277, 380-415, 460-480, 575-600, and 690 VAC. Past that I don't see anything until medium voltage ...
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### What is the peak to peak voltage of a Colpitts Oscillator?

I am designing a colpitts oscillator having a frequency of 100MHz. However, I am not sure how to calculate the peak to peak voltage for the sustained oscillations. Attached is my workings. Is the peak ...
40 views

### Auto Voltage Selection between 12V and 5V for Irrigation Controller

Background I am working on a hobby project, it will be a general purpose open source irrigation controller. I haven't built the PCB yet but I want to power the board either through the USB port for ...
38 views

### Powering a NEMA 17 motor | Wattage Vs Voltage

I apologize if the question is silly as this is my first project involving stepper motors and I'm confused about power supply specifications. So I'm working on a project involving: 3 NEMA 17 Stepper ...
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### Can you cross Live and Neutral traces on opposite sides of a PCB?

Can 230V live and neutral traces be crossed over if they are on the top and bottom side of a PCB? I know there are requirements for creepage and clearance; if that requirement is less than the ...
42 views

### opamp single supply output AC (audio) voltage limit

I build non-inverting op amp with single supply voltage cca 9V. The basic scheme is shown in the figure below: How to limit output AC signal if the base DC voltage is at half the supply voltage 4.5 V ...
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### How to get an old beer sign to work again?

Has anyone tried to upgrade an old beer / cigarette sign before? I'm a total electronics noob, and I got my hands on one of these old Coors signs that has a 45x7 LED display board. The board has what ...
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### Differential Signal Measurement best practice

I have 4 differential signal pairs (LVDS Data lines and Clock) running between my Microcontroller and TFT. There are no test points over the lines. Can someone tell me what is the best practice and ...
55 views

### Use of series inductor to control small 120v blower

I want to run the 120vac blower less agressively. Like 9ov instead. I find that I can series install an inductor and that works well. Q1 Would it be best to use a buck xfmr instead? Q2 How does ...
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### Can I replace a board fuse like the one in the picture with a radial one?

The fuse on one of my commercial printers blew. See picture below. I am planning on replacing it but cannot find an exact fit. The closest I can find is another 400mA / 72v fuse that is labelled as &...
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### V-I characteristics of a non linear, bilateral element

My professor had told us that Bilateral elements have V-I characteristics which are symmetric about the origin. However, in an exam, we were asked to draw the V-I characteristics of a non linear, ...
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### Automotive electronic circuit design, Voltage divider to uC ADC pin

Automotive Circuit requirement: If input pin is connected to Battery(T87 line), the output of the circuit shall provide a output voltage of 5V to ADC pin of microcontroller, if the input pin is ...