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Questions tagged [wave]

May refer to an electromagnetic wave (such as a radio wave) or the PCB manufacturing process of wave soldering.

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How can I turn off automatically, say after a fixed number of cycles, a 555 in astable mode?

I looked at the answer to "How to turn a 555 in astable mode into a decaying square wave" but this is really for an input to a speaker. I want the input to go into a counter to count the number of ...
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1answer
46 views

A wave generator of 64db max and an omnidirectional antenna of 3.2db what db can have max?

I have this wave amplifier of 64db max and an omnidirectional antenna of 3.2db and I have to transmit a sine wave of 82Mhz, are they suitable for me? What is the maximum gain I can get? I need at ...
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2answers
69 views

Effect of wall location for guided wave attenuation

Pardon my ignorance here if this has already been answered. I'm not fully familiar with the English terminology here so my searches came up empty. If there is any keyword I’m missing or I’m not using ...
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0answers
46 views

Radio wave propagation theory ( law of refraction)

I have some doubts about a radio wave propagation theory. what is the difference in perpendicular radio wave propagation and propagation at an angle to the ionosphere?
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1answer
62 views

Is it possible to generate user-defined signal using an android phone?

Is it possible to generate an electronic wave signal using an android phone? (Theorically) For example by customizing the firmware can I produce some signals like \$ f(t)=2 \sin 3.2×10^9t+3\cos 5×10^...
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1answer
42 views

wave propagation ( pict) [closed]

Can someone explain to me what is a meaning of the starred items in this picture?
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1answer
75 views

Why does this “square wave” have what seems to be a charging action on it's leading edge?

I'm trying to produce a basic square wave output across a resistor from an ATMega328P Xplained mini. VCC is 5 V. Setup: Code: (Stuff with DDC/PORTB is just to control the onboard LED) ...
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1answer
44 views

The wavelength region of the IR sensor

I was reading an article that explains the Infrared sensor until I came to the wavelength region's section, which has been mentioned as the following: The infrared waves typically have wavelengths ...
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1answer
155 views

10MHz Sine Wave Generator

I have been looking for some time for a good design for a ~10MHz sine wave generator, with variable frequency from about 5-20MHz. The max required peak to peak amplitude is 10V. Many suggestions on ...
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3answers
85 views

Is a modern radio wave broadcasting station a very fast spark gap transmitter?

In a spark gap transmitter, is that a "real" radio wave that is produced? I know you can hear it on an AM radio, if you are close to the gap, but is it a radio wave the same as from a radio station? ...
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1answer
47 views

Electromagnetic wave equation for GPS waves

Recently, I came across a source which stated the model of a GPS L1 wave was: My question is, how was this equation derived?
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1answer
91 views

Calculate radiation power of an antenna in respect to a given antenna radiation pattern and a given angle

I work on a program that simulates the wave propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves (2.4 or 5 GHz Bands) in 3D. I use a ray launching approach, where the emitted rays approximate the ...
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0answers
50 views

Why does the solution to the wave equation define two directions?

I've been studying transmission lines recently and I'm struggling to reconcile my intuition with the derivations. Take the form of the general solution to the wave equation given on this page antenna ...
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1answer
189 views

How to flicker high-power LEDs with precise square or sine wave?

I need some advice regarding a setup with high-power LEDs I am currently working on. My aim: I have a set of 6 high power LEDs (http://www.roithner-laser.com/datasheets/led_highsingle/apg2c3-530.pdf) ...
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1answer
83 views

EHF RF Transmitter and Receiver

We are working on a blood glucose meter that will measure BG readings through radio waves with a frequency between 60-70 GHz. That range is necessary to allow penetration through the tissue and we ...
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1answer
95 views

Length of the dipole antenna

I know it is really stupid question, but I can’t understand. I have a picture with dipole antenna (different length). If I have the current distribution along the length, that it is easy to determine ...
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0answers
22 views

Solution to coefficients for Spherical wave equations

Are there any methods for solving coefficients \$A\$ and \$B\$ for the Spherical wave equation below? \$p(r,\theta, \phi) = \sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty} \sum\limits_{l=-n}^{n} \Big[A_{nl} h_{n}^{(1)}(...
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1answer
68 views

Confusion about what EM fields really look like, and how that relates to data transmission, waveguides etc

After a discussion at work a few days ago, I realized I don't have a very good understanding of what RF energy is truly like. I've always thought, via physics and EE classes, that all EM waves (...
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3answers
206 views

Can I detect the absence of square wave?

Can I build a circuit to set the output high if there is a square wave at the input and set it low when missing the square wave (the input become low)? Edit: The signal is 2 kHz, +5/0 V. It's not ...
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3answers
79 views

Consistent Radio wave detection timing

Bigger picture: What do I need to do? I need to send a radio signal and have another device receive that and output a voltage pulse, with the time between starting to send the signal and starting to ...
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6answers
3k views

Why is “wavelength” used as a unit for the length of an antenna?

We often refer to antenna size relative to wavelength. For example: a 1/2 wave dipole is approximately half a wavelength long. Wavelength is the distance a radio wave travels during one cycle. (...
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1answer
34 views

Can you have a compensating wave in steady state?

In a circuit in steady state is it possible to have a compensating wave? My understanding of a compensating wave is that it is there when a switch is switched. It provides a voltage and current that ...
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2answers
50 views

Operational amplifier conversion of a sinusoidal wave

Ok guys my question is: Is possible to turn a sinusoidal wave into a square wave with just an operational amplifier?
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2answers
98 views

How well should you know electromagnetism before studying Antenna Theory [closed]

There are 3 main books in electromagnetism from "easy" to "hard": Griffiths, Purcell and then Jackson's. I will start the study of Antennas in the next week. However, I'm a bit worried because even ...
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1answer
132 views

Simulation is the same as my thinking,but different from the pape r(charging loop)

This question has already perplexed me for a long time ,after simulating it, the simulation is the same as my thinking,but different from the paper.So now i am confused who is right. There is energy ...
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5answers
127 views

Making a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width

I am going to make a square wave which has two different kinds of pulse width.At first,i think i can use the digital logic gate to finish it,however,after taking lots of time for trying,i still can't ...
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0answers
57 views

The ideal capacitor and inductor characteristic problem in virtuoso cadence

This question may be similar to Two simulations are different. Mine V.S. Paper's ,but the questions are different. According to the schematic and therom from the paper,http://rincon-mora.gatech....
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1answer
62 views

Two simulations are different. Mine V.S. Paper's

Paper Link : http://rincon-mora.gatech.edu/publicat/cnfs/new16_pzdamp.pdf After reading the Fig3 (Asymmetrically pre-damped piezoelectric charger),explanation of its process,i make a schematic(a.) ...
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1answer
78 views

How to produce this type of wave?

Can we use Virtuoso Cadence to produce this type of wave(c,first picture)?it is the wave that PZT produced My schematic and waveform of connecting high pass
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1answer
81 views

galvanic isolation for lm555

Hi guys I am trying to implement galvanic isolation for my lm555 square wave generator. I am designing a marx generator so this is essential. I am new with transformers, at the moment all I want to ...
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2answers
2k views

Sawtooth Wave Generator Using Op Amps

So I'm trying to design a sawtooth wave generator that goes from 2.5V to 3.25V. I'm using this design: I'm getting a voltage range from around -4V to 4V. Is there any way for me to get 2.5 to 3.25 by ...
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1answer
455 views

How to analyze analog output waveform in Modelsim

I want to analyze an output sine signal from my VHDL code in Modelsim. I have created a project and simulated the code. However the outout in the "Wave" window is in binary form represented as a 32 ...
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1answer
218 views

Relation between attenuation and loss tangent in EM wave propagation

I was studying EM wave propagation in lossy dielectrics and came across two seemingly conflicting parameters of a medium. The loss tangent is defined as: tanδ=σ/(ω*ϵ) ; which clearly is inversely ...
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5answers
390 views

reading the frequency of a sine wave

I'm trying to build a speedometer for my car, using the output from the cars speed sensor. The speed sensor outputs a sine wave. here it is on an oscilloscope: as I understand it, in order for the ...
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0answers
91 views

RF Moding in coaxial structures

If I have a coax structure that is three sections. The mid-section has a cutoff frequency of 20 GHz and is .10” long, the two sections on the ends have a cutoff frequency of 80 GHz and each is .200” ...
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4answers
148 views

Physical meaning of reflection coefficient being complex

Below is a wikipedia section about reflection coefficient in electrical engineering: source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflection_coefficient It says that the incident to reflected wave ratio is ...
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1answer
370 views

Decoding waveform from RFID 125 khz reader

I've recently bought a chinese reader for EM4100 and compatible cards: it has an USB to UART converter to get commands from the software and an STM8S10 MCU responsible for the RFID comunication. I ...
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1answer
56 views

Calculating wavelength

Given is fundamental frequency \$50\,\text{MHz}\$, \$50\%\$ Duty Cycle, Rise and fall time is \$5\,\text{ns}\$, wire length is \$30\, \text m\$, \$R_i=50\,\Omega\$ and \$c\$. How do I calculate ...
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1answer
89 views

Why are wave variables a and b normalized to sqrt(Z0) rather than just Z0?

With reference to the equations below; why are the wave variables normalized to the root of the characteristic impedance rather than just the characteristic impedance itself? equations sourced from: ...
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3answers
196 views

How to drive a speaker/microphone from a digital circuit?

I’m having a hard time understanding how to use speakers or microphones. My end game here is a sequencer I’m going to lay out what I think so that you guys can correct me and help me understand why ...
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2answers
57 views

Very basic question about vectorial representation of an electromagnetic wave

This might sound a dumb question but I have some confusion about relating em fields as propagating vectors. Below shows how an electromagnetic wave travels: But let's focus and look at point X below:...
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2answers
114 views

Range of 1 volt radio wave [closed]

I have a simple question how much radio wave produced by 1 VOLT can reach in KM , i mean it will be detectable in which range , without any mountains walls ..etc just on flat surface with air?
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2answers
67 views

Small size ultra short waves (UKW) emitter

I want to create a small battery-powered device that can emit a few bytes per day to as far as possible (100 km?). While discussing with someone working on sensors placed outside (even in the ...
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4answers
252 views

Are waves inside conductor wires considered longitudinal waves, just like sound waves?

Are signals transmitted through electrical wires considered longitudinal waves (signals) or electromagnetic waves? I think it would make sense for them to be longitudinal because the electrons are ...
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2answers
65 views

Why is the voltage wave magnitude constant along a transmission line that is perfectly matched to a load?

I think I understand reflected waves and standing waves on transmission lines, but why is a traveling wave voltage magnitude constant on a perfectly matched transmission line? Why doesn't have peaks? ...
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2answers
534 views

How can I multiply square wave circuits?

I would like to generate a signal that consists of a 1 kHz signal, which switches to a 100 kHz signal, flipping from one to the other at a rate of 10-100 Hz. I have access to signal generators to ...
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3answers
2k views

Are radio waves naturally polarized like light or is that a function of how they are produced?

I am thinking of let us say AM or FM radio being transmitted by a vertical antenna. Would the they be polarized vertically or horizontally and wouldn't the angle of the receiving antenna then ...
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0answers
172 views

Fundamental Limit on Antenna Gain?

Harold A. Wheeler, “Fundamental Limitations of Small Antennas,” has introduced the concept of "boundary sphere", where the smallest sphere or circle surrounding an antenna has interesting implications ...
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2answers
1k views

How to convert sine wave from an oscillator to TTL signal for microcontroller?

I tried to measure inductance by using a colpitts oscillator to generate sine wave. It works. I need to convert the sine wave to 5V square wave to feed to a microprocessor. The sine wave is coupled ...
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2answers
190 views

Homework: TEM wave after switching

I'm following an electromagnetics course and got this question as homework: From earlier examples I tried to piece to together a solution but ran into some problems. I learned that if the a circuit ...