Questions tagged [wave]

May refer to an electromagnetic wave (such as a radio wave) or the PCB manufacturing process of wave soldering.

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Square wave distortion at low frequencies, high-pass filtering, AC coupling

This is an update on my previous question. As Hearth suggeste, I changed to DC coupling on my scope. This is what I got: That's a clear change. Not a perfect square waves but I guess it is because of ...
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Square wave distortion on low frequencies

I have this old Soviet low frequency sine and square pulse generator "G3-36A". I ran into an interesting problem. When I try to generate square pulse under 100Hz I get a distorted wave. ...
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4 answers
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Rail to rail +12/-12 V square wave generation with microcontroller

I need to generate a +/-12 V square wave, +/-0.4 V tolerance is allowed. The purpose is to drive the pilot signal of an electric vehicle level 2 charger, for those curious. EDIT (clarification): what ...
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Sort of square wave shift or cleanup

I have a wave I want to feed into an Arduino to measure frequency. I need the wave to hit zero to measure the frequency, I think. A nice clean square wave ideally. I am using a simple 4.3V Zener ...
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2 answers
126 views

Converting square wave into a sine wave [closed]

I am trying to convert a 1 MHz square wave into a sine wave of the same frequency. What's the best way to achieve this?
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2 votes
3 answers
224 views

1 Hz ring oscillator not working

Inspired by this project I built a ring oscillator that outputs a 1 Hz signal. Using their formula, I decided to use 1K for R1 and R2, and 558 uF for C1. I used a CD4069UB CMOS inverter that has a ...
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Problem in the book "Radio Antennas and Propagation"

I came across a problem in an electronics textbook by William Gosling, Radio Antennas and Propagation. I am an undergraduate and I sent this to my lecturer to help solve but unfortunately, her answer ...
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2 votes
3 answers
521 views

Frequency of square wave generated by Wien bridge oscillator

I have designed the wien bridge oscillator circuit for 20Hz square wave generation. It gives a 20Hz sinusoid as output when I keep the non-inverting amplifier gain 3V/V. But when the non-inverting ...
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3 votes
3 answers
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Circuit that converts sine wave to RMS voltage

How do I design a simple circuit that converts a sine wave to an RMS voltage? The input will be a sine wave and the output an RMS voltage. I know I will need an ADC, but not sure which one. I also ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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EM radiation hitting atoms [closed]

What happens when the EM wave is incident on a atom? Do the de-localized electrons in the atoms or the valence band electons move in the direction of the electric field? Also when the electrons move, ...
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3 votes
2 answers
71 views

Photodiode square wave positive duty cycle lower and lower

I drive an IR LED with a 50% duty cycle square wave and receive its signal with a photodiode. If I take the photodiode farther and farther from the LED, the signal's positive duty cycle is lower and ...
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Double conversion UPS off a modified sine input?

I have a 2000W modified sine wave inverter running from 12V bank in a tractor-trailer. It’s company owned, so no changing or adding equipment. Only viable solution I can see to achieve a sine wave is ...
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3 answers
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Precise square wave generator 32768 Hz

I need to create a circuit to generate a square wave with 50% duty at 32768 Hz +/- 5 Hz. The output of the circuit will drive an NPN transistor ( 0.2 A , 24VDC ). The cost of the component is not a ...
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1 answer
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How to plot graph of perpendicularly polarized uniform plane wave is incident obliquely on a dielectric to conductor boundary using Matlab

I am writing the code for the equation which is attached below ( image of equation). I have written the code but getting errors. I want to plot the graph of E and H as underlined in the image. In the ...
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1 answer
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WiFi (2,4G) Antenna Isolation. Why 3 capcitors version does not work

I need to isolate the antenna from the WiFi transmitter. There are some solutions on the market but none suitable for my application. So I have started some experiments. 2x PCBs creating DIY ...
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2 answers
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Solid Faraday cage with a hole for a wire

Is it possible to make a solid Faraday cage with a hole for a wire (to transmit information inside)? What is needed to prevent electromagnetic waves from going through the hole?
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Underdamped bipolar square wave with Arduino [closed]

I want to ask about a 30 Hz (decaying square wave) underdamped bipolar square wave.Also this is used for demagnetization. The photo of the output is shown as below. Could you help me to construct? Any ...
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What to do when studying "travelling wave" in a coaxial cable?

Propagation of travelling waves on cables may sometimes be difficult to apply and understand. There is a method called in french "abaque de Bewley" or "diagramme de Bergeron" (in ...
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why Arduino Nano Atmega328P D9 & D10 GPIO Blowing while using PNP Transistor S8550?

I am trying to make an Simple Sinve Wave Inverter circuit using below Schmatic. As soon as I connect this circuit D9 & D10 gets damaged. should I change the value of 100Ohm to 1K ? will that solve ...
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Can't Make Square and Triangle Waves

I have the following c++ code for making a sine wave using SFML, which i got from https://github.com/SFML/SFML/wiki/Tutorial%3A-Play-Sine-Wave. ...
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2 votes
2 answers
248 views

Wave Impedance vs Characteristic Impedance

What is the physical difference between Wave Impedance and Characteristic Impedance? What are the meanings of these in a wave port in a simulator software?
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Why'd we have reflected waves in transmission lines?

I've learn today that when you applie a potencial V in a transmission line, we get a V in positive way, but we have to a V in negativa way, being reflected. What does it means? Like, I can understand ...
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1 answer
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Parallel transmision lines reflection at the source

Question: There's a 9 V battery with output resistance of 50 Ω, at time t = 0 it is connected to two lossless transmission lines connected in parallel: LTx1 and LTx2. Both lines are identical, with ...
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3 answers
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What properties differentiate specific wireless communication technologies?

Is it just the frequency range that a particular wireless communication technology operates in? (for example WiFi 2.4 Ghz band (2,400 to 2,483.5 Mhz)). Can a frequency range of one technology overlap ...
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How to imagine the mathematical expression in the waveguide?

Below we see an example expression for the E-field. It has three components: polarization of the field propagation direction standing wave pattern In the photo below of the field "L" has ...
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Synonym for Sine Wave Half Cycle

One cycle of a sine wave (such as the mains power voltage) consists of two half cycles (often called positive and negative in electronics). Is there a (preferably one-word) term to refer to such a <...
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Trapezoidal wave rms value calculation

Does anybody know how to calculate this wave RMS value? The answer is I use Mathcad to prove it but I still can not get the answer. Hope someone can give me help.
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LFO Triangle to Square wave peak distortion

I put together an LFO based off the one in the link below. I swapped out the op amps in the schematic for 741 op amps. Everything works fine, except for the square wave. This is supposed to be the ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Mobile Signals and Amplitude Modulation

I was just introduced to the concept of Amplitude Modulation and how it was used for transmitting information between radios. What modulation technique is used for communication between mobile cell ...
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2 answers
632 views

Constructing a sine wave generator circuit using LTSpice

I am trying to make this particular Wien Bridge Oscillator (WBO) circuit using LTspice. Ideally I should get an output sine signal. Although I can't seem to make it work. Anything wrong with what I ...
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40 views

A circularly polarized EM wave is perfectly absorbed by any interface?

According to the Fresnel equations, the effective reflectivity of an arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave is given as: $$ \Gamma = \frac{\Gamma_p + \Gamma_s}{2} , $$ where \$\Gamma_p\$ and \$\...
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Phase shift a square wave

I have an application where I would like to derive a secondary square wave from a primary one but with a continuously variable phase shift. I would like to know if this is possible to achieve in a ...
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-3 votes
4 answers
128 views

What is waving in light? [closed]

I've been building an AM transmitter and it's generated a lot of questions. At the top is the electromagnetic wave. It may seem simple but I've yet to find an answer. As far as I know, light is made ...
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6 answers
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Why are transmitting antennas generally larger than receiving antennas?

The reasons I can think of are transmitting antenna has to be more directive also larger length will imply larger power and thus will help compensating for losses. But on contrary if receiving antenna ...
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2 answers
113 views

Why does higher bitrate requires higher bandwith?

I try to understand this question since a while and I think I came to an understanding. But I need someone to confirm it. At first, I thought the bitrate was dependent on the frequency (more sines per ...
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Average amplitude and DC component

While I read my college book in signals, I got stuck with some basics: DC component is component of zero frequency. With no DC component, a signal has an average amplitude of zero, with a DC ...
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Do surface charges exist when EM wave gets reflected by dielectric boundary?

If both the materials on a boundary are dielectric then do surface charge exists. I was solving using pillbox it showed that there should be surface charge on boundary to satisfy change in normal ...
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1 vote
0 answers
80 views

Generating a sine wave

Hello so I thought I could use a VCO to generate a sine wave , but I didn't find anything that generates a sine wave with 500Khz. So then thought to use a microcontroller, like Atmel o Arduino, but it'...
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Polarization of an electromagnetic wave

How can I find polarization of an electric field as shown below? $$\vec E (0,0,0) = \vec a_x E_{0x}+\vec a_y + 2j \vec a_z \dfrac{V}{m} $$ The propagation of the wave is as shown below. $$ \vec a_n = \...
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1 answer
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Refractive index, wavenumber, and wave impedance of the PEC that a plane wave is normally incident on

I am trying to find the refractive index \$n_t\$, wavenumber \$k_t\$, and wave impedance \$\eta_t\$ of a perfect electric conducting medium t. Here is my work so far: The conductivity of the PEC is \$...
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9 answers
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If a square wave has infinite bandwidth, how can we see it on an oscilloscope?

If a square wave requires infinite bandwidth how can we display it on oscilloscopes? Link: Oscilloscope fundamentals.
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2 votes
2 answers
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What is a guided mode?

I am currently reading my text, for my electromagnetics course, and we are discussing guided waves. The text casually mentions the term "guided modes", and never really defines what that ...
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LM358 waveform generator issue

I would like to generate a 30 kHz & 60 kHz sawtooth waveform using an LM358P operational amplifier per the following schematic. Theoretically, and in the simulation, the circuit should work ...
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1 answer
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Why only half the peak voltage in my half wave rectifier?

I built a simple half wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and a 1N4007 diode. I connected the 1N4007 diode to one of the live secondary wires of the transformer and measured the DC voltage ...
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3 answers
139 views

How do a generate a clean, precise pulse wave electronically without jitter?

I am trying to build a simple pulse generator circuit for electrophysiological stimulation purposes. It seems to be surprisingly difficult to generate a square/ pulse waveform where the pulses have ...
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0 answers
367 views

Building a triangle wave generator using two LM358 with single supply operation

I am trying to build a triangle wave generator with the following specifications: The triangular wave must oscillate between V_max=7.2 V ,V_min=1.6 V Duty cycle = 0.5 ±1% Frequency, f_osc= 8.5 kHz ±5%...
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6 votes
5 answers
399 views

How is digital data represented in analog waves? [closed]

This question is simply coming from an intrigued teenager, so if it has any flaws, I'm sorry for the inconvenience. To my knowledge, when digital data is transmitted wirelessly, it is first encoded ...
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-1 votes
3 answers
130 views

TV remote mystery

My TV remote has this hole. The hole exists for the propagation of the EM waves coming from inside the remote correct? I guess plastic would absorb those EM waves and we don't want that to happen. ...
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3 answers
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How fast is DC current/voltage?

The standard way to calculate the speed of information (current/voltage, EM wave) through a dielectric medium (like PTFE or fiber) is to determine the relative dielectric constant, and compute the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
94 views

Synchronizing sine waves from solar panel and grid electricity [closed]

I am new to the field of solar panel. I would like to install and use the electricity produced by the solar panels (through inverter) directly on the appliance, e.g. a fridge. In case of cloudy sky, I ...
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