# Questions tagged [waveform]

The shape of a value (usually voltage) when graphed over time.

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### Waveform at the negative terminal of an OPAMP

I am trying to sketch the negative waveform of an OPAMP over here. I am not sure how to proceed with this as I have usually seen OPAMP with dual power supply. But this one have +9V and ground. My ...
6k views

### How to produce sawtooth waveform from square waveform?

I have a question pertaining the changing of square waveform to sawtooth waveform using OpAmp. Following the picture below, I have to create a sawtooth waveform from a square waveform. It seems that ...
2k views

### Triangular waveform to square waveform circuit

I am working on a frequency counter project and I am in the midst of thinking about how to go about doing a triangular wave to square wave converter. I have done some research but couldn't find any ...
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3k views

### Average value of current or voltage [closed]

I had read that average value of current must be calculated for half time period. For example if we apply it for a sine value full time period then its value becomes zero. But for any arbritrary ...
4k views

### What does the radiation from an antenna look like?

Just out of curiosity, I searched for antenna on Google Images, and what usually shows is something like this. So I really thought that an antenna radiates in a circular and equal pattern. But as I ...
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17k views

### Square Wave input into Transformer

Can a square wave generated using an astable NE555 be used as input of a transformer instead of AC? Say, I generate a square wave of 60Hz using NE555 and a 24V at 6A supply and feed it into a ...
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11k views

### Is there a spice directive to export waveform data in LTspice?

http://www.linear.com/solutions/1815 The above web-page explains how to export the waveform data to a text file. You basically run the LTspice simulation, clicking on the waveform window, go to ...
128 views

### How to design a function generator (Arduino Nano) to filter out noise of different signals?

I have an Arduino Nano-based function (sine, sawtooth, triangular, square) generator. Basically it is an Arduino Nano connected to a MCP4802 DAC, whose output is connected to an RC lowpass filter. ...
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1 vote
2k views

### How to generate a bipolar waveform using MOSFET?

I'm trying to generate bipolar waveform using MOSFET (IRF9630 & IRF630): Basically the bipolar waveform looks like below: The load is a wounded coil (260 Ohm). For the experiment I need this ...
257 views

### Current wave form of an inductor

If this voltage is applied to an ideal inductor. How will be the current waveform look like? Kindly any one show me the graph for inductor current and if possible explain it. I shall be very grateful!...
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### Can't understand concept, range of the pulse (waveform)

I am working on the lab which is allowed to ask other people for hints. In the image, program called "Audacity" is used to capture that waveform. Question 1 In the image it says, "The peak-to-...
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4k views

### Why is signal on XTAL1 and XTAL2 a sine wave (not square)?

I have a basic implementation with a crystal feeding XTAL1 and XTAL2 on a processor (similar to below). When I look at the signal on XTAL1 and XTAL2 they are sine waves. Shouldn't they be square ...
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6k views

### How do you shift a square wave down?

I have a square wave the oscilates at 25khz from 0 to 30v. I would like it to oscillate from -15v to +15v. Is there a SUPER DUPER SIMPLE circuit to do this? Keep in mind it's going up and down at ...
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4k views

### Voltage spikes in triangular waveform generator circuit using LM324 op amp

I recently made a triangular waveform generator circuit using LM324 op amp. But the output of the generator had some sort of periodic spikes in it. However I was able to suppress the spikes by ...
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37k views

### Peak to Peak vs. Amplitude

For a sine wave, Amplitude is the fluctuation or displacement of the wave from its mean value. Peak-to-peak (pk-pk) is the difference between the maximum positive and the maximum negative amplitudes ...
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70k views

### How to Calculate the average of a Square Wave?

I could not figure how to calculate the average of a square wave. Consider a square wave of +5V from time 0 to 6 sec and -3V from 6 to 10 sec. On integrating from time 0 to 6 the average: 3.0V On ...
866 views

### What is the source of this shape on my USB eye diagram?

I have designed a USB device around an STM32F105. It is USB 2.0 Full Speed CDC device configured as a Virtual COM Port using ST's USB Library. It uses the STM32's built-in PHY, and runs at 12 Mbps. ...
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303 views

### Is it normal for a square signal to change into a sine shape at high frequencies?

The signal generator outputs a square wave into an LED which emits light onto a photodiode. The photodiode is connected in a TIA circuit and then output is displayed on an oscilloscope. The output ...
• 161
794 views

### Square wave to triangle wave converter using Op-Amp not working

I have built an integrator to act as a 5V 30Hz square wave to triangle wave converter. My output currently looks like this. I am unsure why. The value of the triangle wave amplitude, according to ...
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469 views

### Op-amp square wave to triangle wave converter not working as expected

A follow-up to a similar question from yesterday since the problem I've run into has differed enough to warrant something more than an edit. I have built an integrator to act as a 5V 32Hz square wave ...
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5k views

### Spikes on a square wave of a oscilloscope reading

This question is not really a problem i am having but a thought that want to get off my mind. Usually on a reading on a oscilloscope especially on a square wave and sometime triangle waves, there are ...
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1 vote
372 views

### Crystal oscillator application

(Note: I am aware that crystal and oscillators are two different things but a lot of people use them interchangeably so I am using it in the title.) My question is about oscillators, all oscillator ...
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1 vote
487 views

### Why does the amplitude of my output signal increase when I increase frequency of the input signal?

The signal generator outputs a sine wave into an LED which emits light onto a photodiode. The photodiode is connected in a TIA circuit and then the output is displayed on an oscilloscope. The ...
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1 vote
126 views

### How to improve and add frequency adjustment function to my DIY wave generator? [closed]

Introduction I want to build a wave generator. I chose wien bridge oscillator(WBO) as my oscillator and I obtain other waveforms by filtering the sine wave I get from WBO. I managed to get a fairly ...
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1 vote
6k views

### What role does the capacitor play in an AM demodulating circuit? [closed]

The goal of this question. Demodulate the AM signal. (Please assume a diode demodulating AM radio of the most imaginable simplicity.) I am assuming an alternating current sine wave is coming into ...
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1 vote
4k views

### Equation for the average power of a signal

I'm reading the book "Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility" by CR Paul, and in Chapter 3, I come across this equation for the average power in the waveform assuming a 50% duty cycle and \\$\...
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### Quartus Gives Undefined Signal For the State of a Finite State Machine. Supposed to Be Showing Enum of the State_type

Before beginning a larger project in Quartus II I'm trying to do the section 8.8 "FSM as an Arbiture Circuit" example from the book "Fundamentals of Digital Logic with VHDL Design 3rd ed" and I can't ...
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412 views

### Any negatives using a Triac to transmit square wave?

I want to use a TRIAC as a switch to open a gate to transfer a 9600 baud rate square wave (for a uart communication between two avrs). Currently I'm using dc relay, but I'd like to use the Triac to ...
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