# All Questions

115,645 questions
16 views

### Can a stepper motor driver run if powered using a lower voltage than its minimum voltage?

I have a stepper motor driver with input voltage(24-50 V DC) .can I use 12 DC ? what effect will under powering the motor stepper driver have? NOTE: i have stepper motor with 45 kg.cm .in practice, i ...
6 views

### Can I programme modicon m258 plc with codesys

Good morning, I know that modicon m258 plc is programmed with somachine. But it's a licenced software. So can I programme the modicon m258 with codesys
18 views

### Atmega168 USART RX Interrupt does not trigger

I have been trying to get the USART RX interrupt trigger working on my ATmega168A using the tutorial here (updating my registers as per the datasheet): Tutorials I have setup the system to use a ...
15 views

### Turning off the LM3914 dot/bar display driver per the datasheet

I'm designing a circuit with an LM3914 dot/bar display driver and want to shut off the entire bank of LEDs based on conditions in the circuit. I'm having some difficulty turning off the driver from ...
67 views

### explain the working of this circuit

I'm basically trying to understand how this Dc to Dc step-up converter work. please help me.[![dc-dc step-up voltage converter 1v-9v][2]][2] I need to design a DC DC step up converter using bjts. ...
27 views

### Circuit Choices for AmpIifier Input

i have breadboarded a TDA2050 amplifier, using this schematic i get good sound intensity with a half acceptable quality. the down side is the constant noise and humming. i have found a possible ...
20 views

### How does the flux de-oxidize the outer most layer? [duplicate]

The copper's outerlayer is oxidized and the flux's job is to remove it and the impurities. But what type of chemical allows the oxidation on the copper to be removed? How does the flux remove the ...
19 views

### Small 12V DC-Motor Non-Linear Torque vs. Current Curve

I am currently investigating a malfuction on 12V small electric motor. it is performed torque vs. current measurements on a group of samples and some of them are showing non-linear current i.e ...
33 views

### What is the least expensive way to build a three-bit shift register?

I'd like to build a queue of three internal bits as inexpensively as possible. Externally, the queue has two input bits and one output bit. The inputs are (dataIn) and (shift), and the output is (...
39 views

### I cannot figure out what kind of transformer this is [on hold]

So I was told this is from a welder but I would like to us it for fractial wood burning but I cannot figure out what kind of transformer it is and how to do it, all the videos use microwave ...
15 views

### KVL Issue - Telescopic Casocde Amplifier

Hi, my question is regarding the equation circled in red in the highlighted text above. I can't seem to understand the reasoning behind why all the transistors are included in that equation. My ...
40 views

### Photodiode - circuit questions

I am a bit confused on a few things regarding photodiodes. Here are two circuits that I am referring to: or   For the second circuit the capacitor is not of importance. Here are my fundamental ...
12 views

### How to convert a RS-274D gerber to RS-274X

I got from a website some gerber files, I tried to have them printed, but they told me that the format is not supported and I need to convert to RS-274X. I've tried using gerbv to open the gerbers ...
48 views

### Simulating a Buck converter

Im trying to simulate a buck converter done in class to see if this fits what the theory says it would be, It must receive 110 V and send to the load around 60V and 20 A, the circuit is: And with ...
75 views

### Is the US Power grid's voltage the theoretical maximum? [on hold]

At this point, most of the people on this site who live in America know that the voltage of common power circuits is around 120 volts. My question relates to the use of voltage dividers in a circuit. ...
46 views

### PIC32 Real Time Clock and Calender. What is a use case?

I have observed that some PIC32MX micro-controllers have an inbuilt RTCC peripherial. The first feeling i had when i saw this was joy, as it meant i could eliminate a component of my PCB. However ...
31 views

### Proportional Control Balance Beam

Bit of an unorthodox question I'm sure, but I'm making a balance beam (two rotors on either end of a see saw) with proportional control, and I can't seem to get it to balance at 0. The proportional ...
48 views

### Ammeter scale, not sure what my amp reading is

I have a basic multi-meter that I am using to measure amp on a load. I am trying to figure out how much amps my small entertainment system draws. (LCD TV, PC, speakers.) I want to build a small DC ...
30 views

### Operating AD5780 EVAL Board Via MicroController

OK, so thanks in advance because I am new here. I am reading the AD57XX drivers here https://wiki.analog.com/resources/tools-software/uc-drivers/renesas/ad5780 and am struggling to understand how to ...
28 views

### active pfc circuit

I have come up with a bridgeless active pfc circuit. Does this arrangement make sense? When M1 and M2 are on, the inductor current ramps up until M1 and M2 are turned off. No current flows through ...
35 views

### How to mount four 6-wire 10V load cells on Arduino or Raspberry Pi?

I want to connect four 6-wire load cells (Tedea Huntleigh Compression & Tension Load Cell 300kg, 15V dc, IP67, product page and datasheet) into an Arduino or Raspberry Pi and get four independent ...
29 views

### Single Clock FIFO with Single Port RAM

I wanted to make use of a single port RAM to be a single clock FIFO in verilog for an asic project , due to some constraints i can not use the dual port RAM. My confusion is when I have to perform ...
48 views

### What does Minimum Slot Aperature mean?

Exploring some fab houses and I came across this statement from https://www.viapart.com/PCB/Explain "Minimum slot aperture Mechanical drill 0.6mm The tolerance of groove aperture is±0.1mm" Does ...
20 views

### LTM8073 integrated DC-DC buck converter issues

I have a board with two LTM8073 "silent switcher µModule regulators" by Analog Devices/Linear Technology being used to provide two separate power supplies. This is a 10-layer dual-sided board that was ...
38 views

### Switch for low voltage, high current Shape Memory wire

I need a switch to allow current to pass through a wire to Joule heat it. This is a nickel-titanium wire (Shape Memory Alloy, SMA) which has been programmed to bend into a particular shape when heated....
54 views

### Control GPIO pins using USB

What is the easiest way to make a device that can control GPIO pins using USB? Can I make a device similar to this on my own without any special hardware?
19 views

### Shape of a core for use in a solenoid

I am currently designing an electromagnetic accelerator meant to accelerate a spherical nickel-plated NdFeB (neodymium) projectile along a circular tube, in a similar manner to a particle accelerator. ...
54 views

### How is this equation valid?

I am trying to understand the Holand circuit.But how is the following equation formed .Isnt it should be(vi-vo)/R
76 views

### Firmware only runs when I press the reset button

I've created a board using the STM32F405R6T6. I am experiencing some problems: after I program the firmware onto the microcontroller, withdraw the power and reinsert, the firmware only starts to run ...
67 views

### How do select capacitor for 400A surge currents?

I have a 220nF capacitor in a series with my surge protection circuit. As can be seen from my spice simulation, the capacitor gets a surge of current passing through it under fault conditions, and ...
25 views

### Current source output

What can I do to eliminate the output voltage when there is no load on my circuit, even if there is any level on V2? I have do develop a current source that doesn't provide output when no load. Thanks
33 views

### Is there a standard definition of LPF stop band starting point in terms of dB attenuation

Below illustrates a LP filter bands: I can say that the transition band starts at -3dB. But the transition band ends at some point and there the stop band starts. In this example it is -70dB they ...
35 views

### Measuring a small distance via capacitance

I am interested in measuring a small $d$ between two objects shown below by measuring the capacitance between the Terminals denoted as T0 and T1: The distance $d$ is roughly 1mm +/- 0.5mm ...
35 views

### Searching for 'ground fault' on DC power supply, 0VDC to ground

We have 3 chargers for DC power supplies (125VDC battery banks) at our facility and had a contractor come in and test them. They said there is a 'ground fault' on 2 of them in their report. The only ...
41 views

### Rs485 to UART convension

I need to send data from one PIC to another PIC by using RS485. As a protocol I use UART. However, I cannot be sure about RS485 transceiver and its circuit. I will be able to supply 5 V and according ...
32 views

### Capacitive proximity sensing - pcb pad

Does capacitance of pcb's copper used in conjunction with capacitance proximity sensor (analog) rises or lowers when the obstacle get closer?
40 views

### What is TTGO LoRa?

I did search for TTGO and LoRA and found nothing on Google and Bing. I know it is related to Radio frequency but no documentation or website.
13 views

### Gearhead & 'teeth-track' to drive rotation of ringed encasement? [migrated]

I am not an engineer, so apologies if this one is a bit of an ill-thought out... Can anyone show me an example of something like the following scenario: A small stepping motor driving rotation of a ...
24 views

### Identification of a 18*3 pin, 2.54 mm spacing connector for a Bus debugging connector gateway

I am looking for a connector to buy online as a replacement part, following the specifications: 18*3 pin, 2.54 mm spacing. I'd like to at least find an appropriate identification for this connector ...
17 views

### AXI4 communication over Chip2Chip and Aurora

I am trying to exercise the communication between AXI4 master and slaves over the Chip2Chip IP core. When I have a master in one design and the slaves in the other, everything works fine - I properly ...
29 views

### Minimal hardware requirements ESP32 WROOM

I've had a very simple PCB designed to supply the ESP32 WROOM module with power using a voltage regulator that supplies it with 3.3V. However, this does not seem to be enough to run the firmware ...
21 views

### Is there a power socket selector/switcher (where only one of multiple devices attached is selected to get the power)

I'm looking for a device whereby I can choose which socket the power is directed to (in a similar way to a KVM switch for computers sharing a single (K)eyboard (V)ideo Display and (M)ouse, but in my ...
24 views

### Is it possible to strobe a 12v 50 watt flueorescent light bulbs ?at 20 hz [on hold]

Is it possible to strobe a 12v 50 watt flueorescent light bulb
32 views

### Unexpected results when measuring MPU6050 sample rate with RaspberryPi

MPU6050 datasheet says that maximum accelerometer data output is 1Khz, so in theory when measuring time it takes to receive 1000 data samples through I2C, so I should receive all data in no less than ...
28 views

### Finding the resistivity of high resistivity liquids

I'm working on a project to determine the resistivity of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane which is estimated to be around 10^14 ohm-cm. The problem is, the most sensitive commercial conductivity sensors for ...
24 views

### why in the design of the flash memory the controller must erase before writing?

I understand well that for commercial reasons and for making the flash memory faster in writing, the flash memory is written page by page. But why we must erase all over the block before writing to ...
655 views

### Recommended PCB layout understanding - ADM2572 datasheet

I have problem with understanding and applying this recommended PCB layout to my design (image from datasheet, page 18): This is isolated RS485 transceiver with integrated isolated high frequency DC-...
21 views

### TLC5940 SOUT/SIN signal broken after 4th daisy-chained IC

I have a PCB with 5 TLC5940's daisy-chained. The first 4 work fine, but the fifth doesn't work. The LEDs connected to that one just go on at full brightness and that's it. When I measure the SOUT to ...