# All Questions

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12 views

### stm32 HardFault in keil [on hold]

a few hours ago , i created C++ project in keil i wrote my code and next i download in to my board. when i went debug it , code directly get to HardFault exception ...
7 views

### Completing Circuit When Testing Using Ameter with Fuse Adapter

I am using a multimeter to determine which piece of equipment on my vehicle is causing a parasitic battery drain. I purchased a fuse adapter and have connected it to the multimeter as in the following ...
6 views

### How to configure PWM on STM32F429I-Discovery Board

Currently I have some difficulties on the Discovery Board STM32F429I to control the OnBoard LEDs via PWM. According to the data sheet of the Discovery Board the LEDs are located on pin 13 and pin 14 (...
17 views

### How to use 4N27 optocoupler?

i was wondering why does 4N27 optocoupler has a pin for base of the phototransistor? And of course how to connect it. I've usually dealt with PC817 optocouplers and connected them according to the ...
31 views

### Multimeter seems to be giving incorrect mA reading

I'm measuring the current drawn from the negative battery terminal of my car battery. I am not sure if the correct reading is 0.16 A or 1.6 mA. I tested with my multimeter on both 10 A and mA ...
25 views

### Doesn't individual signal sources affect each other when usinga summing amplifier?

I am studying the book Electric Circuits by Nilsson & Riedel. There I learned about "summing amplifiers" and how to derive equations by applying KCL at inverting input of the op amp. I see that ...
8 views

### What is the correct graph for the IEEE 14 bus system bus voltage?

I'm working on optimizing the powerloss across an IEEE 14 bus system. I got this figure for the voltage across the buses before and after DG placement. Is this how a typical 14 bus system voltage ...
27 views

### Ferrite core transformer

Why ferrite core transformers for step up or down are not available for low voltage, e.g 3-50 v applications? If they are efficient for better core saturations? Why only high frequency application ...
27 views

I am working with UART and I want to do something but could not achieve myself. I want to enter an interrupt when the data receive stops, i.e when I unplug the cable, do something only once and then ...
26 views

### Total response of a first order RC circuit

I need to find the step response (steady-state + natural response) of the given RC circuit. The step is at t = 0 secs, that is, where Vp is a constant. I found the time constant to be I am stuck ...
43 views

### Transfer function of ideal op amp

This problem requires solving for V2/V1. My approach: R2 and R4 parallel reason: R2 has virtual ground and R4 is connected to the ground. Applied Nodal Analysis and got the following answer(...
29 views

### Freewheeling diode position

I have a pneumatic solenoid valve switching from IRF830 MOSFET. Solenoid valve connected to MOSFET by 2-3 feet long wire. It's necessary to use a freewheeling diode for this? What is the most ...
10 views

### What is the Inverter HBL-0377 6-pinout configuration?

i have an HBL-0377 inverter from old Toshiba laptop. I need to connect the inverter to the universal lcd board controller that i have. For all I know, the pin should represent Vin, Gnd, Adj, and On. ...
17 views

### Power line rating conversion

How do I convert a real power line limit to a current flow magnitude line limit? Specifically, for a line connecting bus $i$ to bus $k$ (with $j$ denoting the imaginary element), I compute ...
28 views

### Motor for large speed range

I am designing a chuck for which I need a motor which can go from 200rpm to 5000rpm. I tried a 1000KV BLDC with 12V supply, but the minimum rpm was around 1800. Also, I am not sure whether stepper ...
32 views

### Simpler ways to develop a buck regulator

I am designing a low profile space grade buck regulator. I have the following constraints ICs must be space grade Low component count Small size The converter specifications are as follows. Input ...
24 views

### Is there any simulator program for linux like proteus for windows to simulate an AVR microcontroller using .hex file?

I prefer linux OS because of many tools I used in it and because it is an Open source . I wonder if there is a simulator program like proteus for linux to simulate the microcontrollers ?
11 views

### ZMPT107 + Transimpedance Amplifier + Opamp voltage divider: is this circuit work?

First Sorry my basic knowledge about electric and also English. And sorry title of question is not clear enough. Please correct me if I wrong, Thanks so much I'm trying design my own household energy ...
28 views

### EFT Design training

My team is responsible for designing industrial electrical devices. We had successfully designed several devices before. Recently, we are designing products that have to meet IEC 61000-4-4 class A ...
23 views

### Understanding current sourcing and sinking in TL2426 rail splitter

I have a 40dB active bandpass filter being powered off a single rail power supply with the TL2426 providing a virtual ground so I can get a dual power supply configuration. Currently, I'm having ...
62 views

### How to turn on LED using RF as a catalyst?

I am trying to build a circuit that turns on a LED diode when it detects AM radio waves, in order to create a "radio wave detector". Before I explain further, please note that I am not trying to ...
30 views

### Motor “load” for 8051 does not change based on 8051 GPIO pin

I implemented a circuit very similar to the following (original source: 8051 - Can an NPN transistor be driven? ) to control power to a vibration motor from my micro. I made the following ...
53 views

### What is the meaning of “do not populate test points” in a board schematic

I was finding test points in a schematic of an Analog Devices Evaluation board. In one of the schematic pages, there is a clause mentioned "do not populate test points". Does anyone knows what it ...
57 views

### Stacking M.O.T. to create an E-E core

I just came across this site looking for answers on some questions I have concerning microwave oven transformers (M.O.T.). I am currently going into my third year as an E.E. student and I am trying to ...
22 views

### Why do we have single ended DQ and differential DQS in DDRIO?

if differential can reduce cross talks, why do we use single ended DQ? And we know DQS is differential from DDR2
26 views

Depending on the configuration, PLCs can often measure 0-10V, resistance or 0-20mA on the same set of screws. How to use the same screw terminal to measure resistance of an NTC element, voltages in ...
46 views

### Would leakage through a JFET create thermal noise

The impedance through the gate of a JFET is very high and leakage current very small. Would this impedance act like a large resistor creating thermal noise? Would this be a low noise way of ...
11 views

### Is Compare Pulse sooner than OC1REF in STM32 Advanced Timer output trigger

The options for trigger output signals seem not very well documented. According to the datasheet (P509, here) they include: Compare Pulse - The trigger output send a positive pulse when the CC1IF ...
27 views

### Generic 3 phase relay switch

I have a water fill level sensor which is capable to power a 3A single phase 230V motor. However, I have a three phase water pump. Is there a generic "switch" / relay which "operates" on single phase ...
17 views

### Synthesize ATPG Test vectors with 'X' Values

I am working on synthesizing generated ATPG test vectors and implementing them on an FPGA. However, there's plenty of "don't care" values 'X' in the stimuli and response vectors. I am not sure how ...
71 views

### Common symbol for PLL

Is there a common symbol for PLLs, either for schematics or functional diagrams? I need a symbol which would be easily recognized as a PLL, without having to draw the phase comparator, loop filter, ...
33 views

### What is meant by the term “baseline noise” in this context?

I came across this article about oscilloscopes. Under the figures and scope screenshots there is a term called "baseline noise". I googled but it turned out this baseline noise is used at different ...
36 views

### How to measure VSWR of a single connector?

With a 2-port VNA, I would like to characterize the performance of a single coax connector, specifically to obtain VSWR. The specific situation is an SMA connector at the end of a short section of ...
56 views

### How to generate triangle shape?

I tried to follow docs, and here is my implementation for triangle pulse: V1 0 1 PULSE(-0.75 0.75 0m 8.335m 8.335m 0 16.67m 0) but the result is: although the ...
87 views

### Can a PCB footprint be extracted from a solid model?

I usually just make a PCB footprint if I need it (Solidworks PCB, Altium, Protel99, OrCAD, etc). I'm an electrical engineer. I've seen very nice 3D solid models for some parts and I wonder if the PCB ...
102 views

### What is wrong with my inverted pendulum?

I have been making an inverted pendulum using LQR. Here's a list of my hardware: Microcontroller: Microchip WiFIRE (PIC 32) Motor Control: L298N Encoders (2x): US Digital shaft encoders (4095 ...
30 views

### Current amplifier [on hold]

Design a current amplifier with this : input impedance = 10k ohm output impedance= 1k ohm frequency = 10-100 HZ R (inner resistance) = 100 ohm voltage range = 1-10 mv current gain = 100 A which ...
43 views

### Tracing GPS antenna on multi layer PCB

I have been tracing PCB for the first time and came to a few questions regarding GPS antenna selection and placement on PCB. Basically, I am trying to make as small as possible PCB with GPS/GSM modem....
48 views

### Circuit heating

I am using 14.8 Volts 21Ah Lithium ion battery to a control circuit. Control circuit consists of a controller, buck converter LM2596 ( set to 5.5Volts), 5v relay driver , 5v electromagnectic relays, ...
295 views

### Is there a difference between PIO and GPIO pins?

GPIO = digital + analog pins; PIO = only digital ? EDIT: PIO defined in datasheet as "Programmable input/output, also known as general-purpose I/O"
43 views

### How to do Bidirectional multiplex switch signal over two wires?

I'm trying to remote control the doors in my stand-alone garage over two wires. There's three operate switches in the house, and three SPDT position switches on the doors. I think I want to end up ...
38 views

### Gathering accelerometer data over I2C not updating every 1 ms

I am using an STM microchip to communicate with an IMU over I2C. I am requesting 3 axis of acceleration information from the IMU (x,y,z). I have the ODR Selection frequency set at 1.66 kHz. Currently ...
44 views

### Assuming a coaxial cable is matched with the load antenna, what is the DC voltage at the entrance of the cable if the length of it goes to infinity

This is a question from a previous year's exam which I'm having difficulties solving. Given a load impedance of Zl = 48-i14 [ohm], we want to plan our coaxial cable with an impedance that gives a ...
33 views

### I can't make a circuit in Proteus

I'm new in Proteus. I need to transfer the circuit from Electronics Workbench to Proteus. I can't do it, below I attach the circuit that I need to transfer. And also a screen of this circuit that I ...
57 views

### 328p-pu drawing too much current in sleep mode

I have a ATmega328p-pu and run it at 8MHz with the internal oscillator. I am executing some code and then send the chip to sleep. I deactivate the brownout and ADC before activating the sleep. I have ...
24 views

### STM32L0 IWDG > 32s

I need to implement a feature similar to that provided by the IWDG on the STM32L073RZ. The issue I'm facing is that the maximum timeout value of the IWDG is ~ 32 seconds - I need something that can ...
34 views

### Understanding the basics of AC coupling

The real case I am working on: I need to connect a CZT (Cadmium-Zinc-Tellurium) detector to a custom ASIC input (a Charge Sensitive Amplifier of which I do not know the input impedance, if that ...
27 views

### Wishbone B4 rule 3.55: Is this for a special case?

Rule 3.55 of Wishbone states: "MASTER interfaces MUST be designed to operate normally when the SLAVE interface holds [ACK_I] in the asserted state." I read this rule together with permission 3.35, ...
I am building a circuit that stops giving power to the load when the voltage drops below 3.08V. I am using MAX809T (3.08V version) and a SI2302 mosfet ($R_{ds}$ on 0.056Ω@2.5V) When there is no ...