# All Questions

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### How to convert capacitor impedance to ESR?

I select an output capacitor for a DC / DC converter (LM2596), it is said that it needs a high ESR (50-60mOhm). In the characteristics of electrolytic capacitors there is no given value, but there is ...
2 views

### Operational Amplifier and Strain Gauge

My laboratory involves using a strain gauge and an instrumentation amplifier to amplify the signal from the strain gauge. The op amp schematic is shown below: Any assistance with the following ...
7 views

### What would happen if I connect a battery which has lower voltage then output of battery charger

At this moment I'm building a charger for Li-ion battery based on constant current constant voltage methode. I have used IC LT3741 to build a charger. The specs of my charger: 8,4 V, 2A But I dont ...
6 views

### Scalable NFC antenna surface for multiple object detection

as I am absolutely new to NFC and electrical engineering in general (my background is software engineering), I will probably upset users on this Stack with my lack of previous research. But the idea I ...
24 views

### How does this soil moisture sensor and humidity sensor circuit works?

I have very little knowledge in electronics. I want to use circuit in the image. Can somebody explain me how is it work? (not sensor, just circuit) Why we don't connect soil probes to MCU. How can we ...
22 views

### Identification of camera component including probable metal composition

I realize this is probably off topic but am curious as to what electronic component might be shown in the following picture, and what metal it likely is made off. It is presumably part of the ...
20 views

### Measuring capcitance with multimeter

I just calibrated my DMM with a 180nf capacitor. Is it okay to measure capacitance with the DMM or should I buy a LCR meter?
15 views

### Discrete MOSFET with bulk pin

everyone. I have a research project about oscillators and I have to buy MOSFET with bulk pin(both NMOS and PMOS). Is there anywhere that I can buy this rare(!!!) component?? I really need your bits ...
11 views

### How to forward Interrupts to application without EZBL in dsPIC?

I am working on a bootloader for dsPIC and I am using EZBL Library for the same. But, the only thing I use from the library is EZBL_ForwardAllIntToApp() function ...
35 views

### CONFUSED IN DISTURBANCE REJECTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM?

I was reading an article about disturbance rejection of close loop control system and i came across the sentence "becomes almost zero, and the effect of the disturbance is suppressed." i have also ...
16 views

### Side-channel leakage and instruction types on microcontrollers

Since the end of 90s, it is known that side-channels (e.g. execution time, power consumption, electromagnetic emanations) of computation platforms can be analysed to recover information on data being ...
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### Does anyone know connection points for Speakercraft MZC-64 3.5mm (TRRS) to DB9 transfer cable?

I am looking for Speaker craft MZC-64 transfer cable, 3.5mm (4conductor)plug to DB9 serial adapter, for firmware upgrade and programming MZC 64 through EZ tools. I am unable to find it online. Does ...
27 views

### timer input capture for really low frequencies

How low of a frequency can a timer be used to measure an external signal in "input capture" mode? If I need to measure something that has a frequency of say 1hz - 2hz... or even slower for that ...
25 views

### bode plot of LM3481 as boost converter

I have simulated an open loop boost converter using LM3481 average model, given by texas instruments and I got a very strange bode plot (More precisely, strage phase response), please can you tell me ...
28 views

### Reducing power draw from appliance

I have an appliance (electric skillet) that draws 1500W when plugged into a regular (120V) household circuit. If I want to be able to use it on an inverter that can supply max 1000W@120V, can I build ...
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### Does increasing voltage increase the torque of a brushless motor?

1.) I have a brushless motor with testing data at 12V. I want to know if I increase the voltage supply, will this increase the torque? In my research I keep seeing "current controls torque, and ...
28 views

### Is it a bad idea to use unsized integer constants in equality expressions in Verilog?

I noticed the following in the Verilog 2005 standard (5.1.8 Equality operators): If the operands are of unequal bit lengths and if one or both operands are unsigned, the smaller operand shall be ...
23 views

### Flip flop asynchronous reset timing

Let's say you unassert an asynchronous reset signal to a flip flop after you need to to meet setup timing but before the positive edge of the clock. You're in trouble right? Now let's say you've got ...
31 views

### Distance requirements in antenna arrays?

Antenna array is a broad term and it encompasses at least the following concepts: MIMO or massive MIMO: for spatial multiplexing beamforming: increasing the SNR (at transmitter or receiver) by ...
24 views

### connection of 2G cell towers and support for 2.5G and 2.75G [on hold]

i have read here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2G#Past_2G_networks that 2G will be superseded. but doesnt it mean that 2.5G and 2.75G will aslo be superseded given that 2G is the base? i suppose that ...
5 views

### Trouble with double-buffer structure — MachXO2 using FIFO_DC from IPExpress

In reference to this recent question: I'm seeing a problem with that scheme (the second figure, using the FIFOs as "circular buffers", or shift-registers so that old samples are extracted as discarded ...
11 views

### Expression for output voltage of a Dual-Parallel Mach Zehnder modulator

This paper is about a dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM): The paper says that given an input: $$E_0 \exp(j \omega_c t),$$ and with the RF signals applied to the two paths being $$a(t),$$ ...
8 views

### Garage door hard-wired wall button doesn't work after adding wireless controller dongle in parallel [migrated]

I have a standard garage door controller (Chamberlain HD900D) with a wired button inside the garage, and wireless clickers that all work properly. I purchased a GoControl/Linear GD00Z-4 ZWave Garage ...
31 views

### Need to concatenate 1 bit of a 2nd data with every new 1st data

I have two different datas. 1st data keeps coming in chunks every cycle. 2nd data is fixed and needs to be appended 1 bit every cycle. out = {data1, data2[i]} ...
29 views

### Thermocouple amplification configuration

I am relatively new to thermocouples. We are wanting to get the temperature of fire ball blast. We are using a Type-K thermocouple and a Phoenix Contact mini signal conditioner to amplify the signal. ...
64 views

### Which component did I likely break? [on hold]

I moved my dryer and when I turned it on, I heard a pop but no action. The dryer takes 240v and is configured for q 3 prong coed but is using a four pronged cord. The cord's ground wire touched L2. ...
83 views

### Very high temperature (>500C) IC packages

I was looking for IC packages where I can mount a small wafer (3mmx3mm) wire bond to the leads of the package and conduct operation at 500C. I have contacted couple of companies which do ceramic IC ...
51 views

### Do I need to recertify a product if I add a DC to DC converter?

I have a product that has been FCC verified as an unintentional radiator, I have fixed a problem with the power that required a DC to DC converter that operates in the 100kHz to 300kHz range (added to ...
40 views

### How to power a device using a USB port instead of AA batteries?

I have a device that uses 3 AA batteries and I would like to power it from a USB port instead. As I understand I will have to use resistors but I have no idea on which ones. I have found the ...
56 views

### Wave Propagation in Transmission Lines

let's consider this image (from AAC book, see here) The author wanted to show that a transmission line propagates not only voltage and current waves, but also an electromagnetic wave in the space ...
51 views

### Need smaller pullups on i2c lines, but design is low power, what is best?

The pullups on my i2c lines are 4.7k. People are afraid of draining the battery by fixing this waveform with smaller pullups, like 2.2k. It doesn't seem much power is wasted considering the short ...
20 views

### Surge Protector Life Span

I work for a small office that is relocating. Recently all new computers have been purchased for staff. In preparation for the move, I noticed that virtually all the surge protectors in the office ...
51 views

### Constant current LED driver using opamp

I'm trying to design a constant current LED driver and am totally confused! This is the schematic i end up with: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab What's the formula ...
65 views

### SPI signals show overshoot and ringing - does that affect reliability?

Here is MISO in yellow and MOSI in purple. I thought I would use a ferrite bead in series of each signal to filter out the noise. I will be making hundreds of these boards. I'm not sure it is worth ...
20 views

### ICSP (pickit2) on 3.3v dsPIC33

I'm using a dsPIC33FJ64MC202 (@3.3V) for some project. I normally program my PIC projects with MPLABX through a PICkit 2, but I never tried using it on a 3.3V chip. Will it work? I know the target ...
17 views

### Legrand switch invert light [migrated]

Here are two photos of the switch I need help. So basically I want to change the left light to the right one and the right to the left but I don't understand the brown cables. Which ones do I need to ...
41 views

### What's the effective method to drive a row of stepper motors? [on hold]

I've recently started working in CEM sales and we had a design presented to us that used a large number of individual motors each controlled by an individual circuit board. Each circuit board has a ...
42 views

### Question about joule thief [on hold]

im a bit new to electronics and i cannot make to work a joule thief that i already made to work before, (the most common - with 2n2222a, 1k and white led) i changed all parts and tested them ...
79 views

### 12V voltage regulator

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab I have bought the LM78H12K 12V voltage regulator, for the 12V output. My input voltage is 17 V DC, but unfortunately this component is ...
407 views

### How does this circuit start up?

I'm trying to understand how CI HT7A6322 starts up. Relevant part of the datasheet says: Control circuit power supply. Also provides a charging current during start up due to a high voltage ...
15 views

### Is it possible to increase the charging current of a TP4056 with a MOSFET for a LiPo?

I want to charge a Lithium Polymer battery at 6A - can I use a MOSFET to increase the charging current of a TP4056 by connecting it to the "Charge Complete" pin?
14 views

### Smart High and Low Side Mosfet

For example I have two smart high or low side mosfet that have 4 channel. One high side driver has 1 amper per channel. Other high side has 2 amper per channel. I tested these smart high side mosfet ...
12 views

### Capacitor across Vlo and Vhi on DAQ, switching power supply

I have a switching power supply (RC Esc). I am measuring the input voltage from battery using a voltage divider. The Divider is attached to a differential DAQ. I have very large transient spikes ...
16 views

### AES encryption with CBC: result length

I checked a piece of library code intended for encryption/decryption with AES, CBC, 256 Bit Key length. To check the results I consulted the following website: https://www.devglan.com/online-tools/...
37 views

### Voltage controlled connection of two signals that are at higher voltage than the control voltage

Given are two signals A and B. I want to control the connection between them by a signal C. However, signal C is a logic signal with a voltage of 3.3V for high and 0V for low whereas signals A and B ...
26 views

### Low voltage cut off on 10s battery? GPS tracker on e-bike

I'm trying to put a GPS tracker in my e-bike battery so that it is hidden and always powered on. It accepts up to 100V so that's no problem but if i directly connect it to the cells it will ruin my ...
55 views

### Is there a meaning of stripes on RS485, Phone and Ethernet cable?

I recently bought some RS485 cable, it had two pairs, both had stripes. One was mostly blue with a white stripe and the other was white with a blue stripe. I'm mostly used to ethernet with a pair ...
24 views

### Calculating energy signal with symbolic math toolbox

I am trying to do calculate, via integration int, the energy of a signal using Matlab. My signal is defined this way: f(t) = t * (u(t) - u(t-2)). For this, I have the following code: ...