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Supposing your numbers are in 2 complement form. Lets call XY the 32 bits number (X being the 16 most significan bits, Y the 16 least significant bits). Lets call Z the 16 bits number and S its sign bit you can compute Y+Z (which gives you a carry bit C) in parrallel, you can compute X+1 and X-1 (you can use incrementer/decrementer, or a 16 bit adder, it won'...

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