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You could use an OnSemi NDP6020P, which is a P-channel MOSFET (for high side switching) and is through-hole and logic level. There are very few through-hole logic-level MOSFETs. Many, many more possibilities in SMT. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab The datasheet for that (your) product is behind a registration wall so it's ...


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You should never backfeed power to a 78xx; it can damage the regulator. The usual method of avoiding this is putting a diode from output to input; this avoids damaging the regulator, but not backfeeding power. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab A second diode on the input of the regulator would help with that, preventing both ...


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As far as the LCD display with I2C interface, you need to figure out the Vih minimum to see if that's necessary. And to figure out if the particular MCU you have will tolerate I2C outputs pulled up to 5V. If it's the PCF8574 as Tirdad suggested in a comment you may need a voltage translator since it requires 0.7 * Vcc for a '1'. If it is required you can use ...


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KP, KI and KD are usually fixed and not manipulated based on the error as you are doing. Instead try and get the controller working as P-only. Try reducing it to this and get P-only control working properly: - piderror = setpoint - inputvalue; proportional = kp * piderror; pidvalue = proportional + integral; if (pidvalue <= 0) { pidvalue = 0; } if (...


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You have an EMI crosstalk problem from the abrupt break of motor inductance with current and made worse with any contact bounce on start or stop. There are a few standard arc suppression methods. Add clamping diode pair on each motor contact to prevent high voltage arc during open circuit. Use 1N400x to each rail, so they are normally reverse biased. This ...


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