# Tag Info

### Explain the logic of a 12 V to 9 V conversion

It breaks up into three simple sections that are each relatively easy to explain: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab The first part is the diode that provides reverse ...
• 78.4k
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### How to calculate air gap in flyback transformer?

Power output and energy per switching cycle An output of 265 volts at 5 mA is a power of 1.325 watts and this means that the energy that needs to be transfered each switching cycle is 1.325 W divided ...
• 465k

### Explain the logic of a 12 V to 9 V conversion

The TIP41A is configured as a voltage follower. The emitter voltage will be equal to the base voltage minus about 0.7 V. The 470 Ω resistor provides the base current to turn on the transistor and pull ...
• 178k
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### What is Namur, and how does it work?

NAMUR is a signaling standard, used primarily on proximity and limit switch devices. It outputs a current signal depending on the state of the switch. The switching spec is >2.1mA (typically but not ...
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### Circuit that converts sine wave to RMS voltage

Maybe use a chip such as the AD636. True rms-to-dc conversion 200 mV full scale Laser-trimmed to high accuracy 0.5% maximum error (AD636K) 1.0% maximum error (AD636J) Wide response capability ...
• 410k
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### Why do we allow discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)?

I know that DCM occurs when ripple is greater than the DC component, Only if you allow it. With passive rectification, it is inevitable, but with active (synchronous) rectification, it is optional. ...
• 176k

### In digital systems do we discretize both time and magnitude or only time?

An analog signal that is sampled is called a discrete-time signal. An analog signal that is quantized is a discrete-valued signal. A signal that is discrete in time and amplitude is called a ...
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### VGA to composite circuit. Does it work?

In addition to Dave's answer, and since this won’t fit into a comment, there is also a fairly compact IC and circuit you can use to properly make the conversion. Check out the AD724. You can get ...
• 4,047
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### Why can't my 555-based DC-DC boost converter supply even 3 milliamps at 12V?

Design Requirements restated from the question: - Vin = 5V nominal (I assume 4.75V minimum) - Vout = 12V nominal, +/- 0.5V ripple - Iout = 15mA peak Since I'm an ...
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I would like to use a DC-DC converter to adjust the voltage and the current too. I would like to adjustable the voltage and the current too in the same time. It doesn't work that way. A power ...
• 314k

### Difference between synchronous and conventional dc-dc boost converter?

Synchronous rectification refers to the practice of using an active element such as a MOSFET switched at the appropriate instants in place of a diode. Here's a simplified example of a boost converter: ...
• 57.7k
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### Behavior of Boost and Buck Converters

do they try to hold the output voltage constant Yes they do, these converters are mostly used for supplying a circuit with a constant supply voltage. Although it would be possible to make a converter ...
• 81.1k
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### Half wave vs full wave rectifier

The 4 diode bridge is a full-wave voltage doubler and achieves 200% of the voltage and 50% of the current of the centre-tapped 2 diode full wave version. Thus the tapped version has lower impedance. ...
• 146k

### How to reduce MOSFET heating in Buck Converter

If it is confirmed the MOSFET needs a better drive then the best is to advise a suitable circuit. A simple bootstrap circuit described by Monsieur Balogh in a TI application note can do the job nicely ...
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### What is the function of the inductor in the "Dual active bridge" DC/DC converter?

The transformer galvanically isolates ... Yes ... and regulate the voltage in output side. No The transformer merely transforms the voltage in a fixed ratio between primary and secondary. As far as ...
• 170k

### Circuit that converts sine wave to RMS voltage

You could try Linear Tech's (now ADI's) frequency independent RMS detector: ∆Σ Breakthrough: LTC1966 True RMS-to-DC Converter Uses No Diodes, Heaters or Logarithms. A typical application circuit, ...
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### Why do we allow discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)?

Dave's answer is very good, but I think it's missing a key point. To reduce ripple and/or maintain continuous current mode often requires using a high inductor value. A higher value inductor is ...
• 132k

### What options exist for isolating a high power DC analog signal?

Analog Devices has a large portfolio of isolated amplifiers and data converters. Many of them include isolated power, so you don't have to come up with a low voltage power source on the field (high ...
• 21.6k
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### What's the difference between the LM2917 and the LM2917-N?

N is TI's designation for their Plastic DIP through hole package. Note that the SMD SOIC package designation is M. Note, these are old ICs first designed by National Semi in the 1970s (This App note ...
• 73.3k
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### VGA to composite circuit. Does it work?

Yes, it works — at a very basic level. But no, it cannot adjust the signal timing, which must be correct to begin with. All this circuit is doing is combining the five VGA signals (R, G, B, H ...
• 176k

### Generating 5V from 37V DC with no EMI

Look at it this way - you've found a weakness in your amplifier so, if you solve that you'll be in a much better position to cope with all sorts of EMI issues that can occur from time to time in ...
• 465k

### Are Fiber Media Converters Technically Modems?

All modems are PHYs (physical layers) in the OSI network model, but only some PHYs are complex enough to be considered modems. Why? I think it depends on four things: simple or complex modulation ...
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### How to reduce MOSFET heating in Buck Converter

MOSFET ON time and OFF time is decided by a UC3845B based circuit The UC3845B has a push-pull type output but, unless this chip is powered from a supply that is several volts higher than the 60 volt ...
• 465k
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### Why does diode keep conducting even after voltage across it is negative

The inductor's stored magnetic energy will try and keep current flowing through both itself and D2 by generating sufficient back-emf to forward bias D2. That's pretty much what an inductor will do in ...
• 465k

### Why do we allow discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)?

I know that DCM occurs when ripple is greater than the DC component This statement sets the scene for the question. The OP is considering a converter circuit (buck, boost, flyback etc.) that is ...
• 465k

### DC-DC Boost converter in Parallel

In your post you said that you wanted 1A out at 12V, and that you calculated that you needed 3.24A in with no losses. You didn't state what input voltage you were using, but it can be calculated. ...
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### CAN to SPI converter

Such chips don't exist because that wouldn't make any sense. To understand why, you need to know how SPI and CAN work. In SPI, transmission is always started by an initiative from the master. In CAN, ...
• 21.3k
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### Negative level shifter

I'd rather go with a simple common base level shifter simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab R1 is choosen not to saturate Q1 looking for "high speed" turn-off. In this ...
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The ESR of the capacitor forms a zero at frequency fz = $\frac{1}{2\pi\cdot\text{ESR} \cdot C}$, which tends to reduce the stability excessively if the ESR is too low. The ESR also should not be too ...