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The CPU, the Central Processing Unit, is known as the heart of the computer. It is responsible for carrying out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

A typical CPU consists of:

  • an ALU, or Arithmetic and Logic Unit, which handles addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and logic operations
  • a register file
  • a control unit, which fetches, decodes, and executes instructions

It is usually connected to memory containing both program and data, and control ports for memory and other peripheral parts.

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