This is called a Pierce oscillator. The inverter and resistor of the pierce oscillator are built into the microprocessor.
(See Wikipedia article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierce_oscillator)
Think of a crystal as lump circuit equivalent to having inductance, capacitance and resistance. The capacitor value are set so the oscillator can resonant at it's ...
I believe that's a TXC 8Z series 48MHz crystal, not a Kyocera.
Photo from quartzcrystal.cn
I don't see detailed info on the bottom line markings- it certainly includes a date code. The tolerance, stability, and load capacitance may or may not be encoded.
Someone else can surely write up a better and more detailed answer than this, but:
A quartz crystal is, basically, a little tuning fork that vibrates at a specific frequency, called the fundamental. Anything that can vibrate naturally at one frequency can also vibrate at a multiple of that frequency, called a harmonic or an overtone of the fundamental ...