Apologies for the delay. I did ask ST, and got answers from them. Repeating the question, since it was worded slightly differently than the original one:
I'm getting really confused by Table 2 in the VN5E010AH datasheet. The meaning of "X" isn't really clear - or really explained.
To be more specific:
Question 1: is it allowed to leave ...
The manufacturer should provide linear models (S-parameters) in the form of something that can be consumed by an RF/Microwave CAD package which usually covers the designed-for range of operation with a fairly large number of points. Look for "touchstone" or "s2p" (two-port network).
The S-params file for AFT05MP075N is available from NXP ...
What does indicated time in below graph means?
It's the length of time that the MOSFET can reliably conduct for the applied drain-source voltage and drain current. For instance, with a drain current of 10 amps, the drain-source voltage can be about 15 volts - that's a power dissipation of 150 watts and, that power can be "safely" dissipated for a ...
I expect from corner triangle hypotenuse of 0.3mm and overall dimension of 1.55 mm or 20% of the side, that makes sense from the photo.
Thus you can compute each side as 0.21 mm of the corner. That appears to prevent solder bridging from the corner during reflow for this heat/ power pad.
a CMOS part like CD4011 ot 74HCT00 is a good choice, they are reasonably energy efficient which important if you're running several hundered chips. maximum clock speed won't be spectacular, but should be enough to run demosnstation programs.
if you assemble the CPU in parts and test each part you should eventually have a working machine.
The led is connected to GPIO2/UART1_TXD as seen in the Chinese datasheet https://docs.ai-thinker.com/_media/esp8266/docs/esp-01s_product_specification_zh_v1.0.pdf
It flashes on power on because like all esps the gpio2 is toggled during boot.
Is it because the table is stating the maximum?
Yes. That's what 'Max' means.
If so, what factor can cause Vce to change so much given that Ib and
hfe are the same?
Hfe isn't necessarily the same. Internally the Darlington is a concatenation of two transistors. Due to process variations the current gain of each transistor can vary widely, and is strongly ...
So the thing is that it is much easier to move electrons than to move holes. So a PNP has to be 3-10 "better" than a regular PNP to handle the current a NPN transistor can handle. That is the reason in the real world people prefer to use NPN transistors.
You can have a PNP transistor that complement a NPN
OR you can have 3-10 regular ...
In your H-bridge schematic, the same signal is being used to drive the bases for the upper and lower transistors. Because the top ones are PNP, and the bottom are NPN, the tops will conduct when the signal is low, and the bottoms will conduct when the signal is high.
The L298 schematic shows that inputs for the lower pair are inverted. That's the little ...
Those old bipolar processes could only be used to make crummy lateral PNP transistors with quite low gain so not very good for high current.
Using all NPN, especially those NPN, transistors is bad (because of the extra Vbe drop), but not as bad as it would be with monolithic PNPs.
Popular? Probably for legacy applications and hobbyists, but I doubt any ...
The fact that the pins are listed by name in the package spec, but not further defined, indicates to me that they're either ports for automated end-of-line testing or for diagnostic purposes. Less likely, but quite possible, is that they're special purpose functions such as fine adjustments or reference voltages that are used only internally or by a few ...