These two questions are nearly unrelated to each other. In normal situation the internal ICs usually are powered with 3.3V, so typically a 5V-to-3.3V regulator is required. And therefore the bypass caps are de-coupled from the 5-V input.
Now, each IC needs de-coupling caps, and their values are usually specified in respective datasheets, with all this ...
Can you reference(or link) the component datasheets to see what the manufacturer recommends for decoupling capacitors? It is likely that the components dont really need their own 10uF cap. Often times just a 0.1uF or a 0.1uf + 1-4.7uF will be recommended.
I would expect that an individual 0.1uF plus a shared 4.7 or 10uF would work just fine.
Do read my answer in Output capacitors placement in PCB
Is using only 1 piece of 10uF at the end of filter instead of placing 3 pieces 10uF for each ic enough?
Yes, 1 capacitor of 10uF will serve all other IC's.
I wonder if you really need 10uF and think you could use 2.2uF or 4.7uF instead. But that depends on cable length and whether the input current ...
Considering the small green traces leaving pins 15 to 21 at the south side, you probably have completely cut the ground plane connection to pin 22 and pin 14.
It looks like the ground connection from the capacitor to pin 28 runs (way) south of pins 15 to 28, heading north, west of the IC. (Or it runs way east of IC). Anyway, with such a long trace, I doubt ...