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Both the Arduino bootloader and the user-firmware are stored in the same flash memory, inside the ATmega328. Whenever ATmega328 is powered up or reset, the bootloader runs first, and waits briefly to see whether the Arduino IDE (or avrdude utility) is trying to send new firmware. If not, then the bootloader runs the user-firmware that is already in the flash ...


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ESD & Overvoltages : question 3 High level i) As far as I know ESD does not transmit along cables and only accessible parts on the equipment itself must be protected: if you can touch the pins of a connector, then you must protect them; a display must be protected. ii) Different are overvoltages due to indirect lightning effects and induction from power ...


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250kbps is quite fast for RS485. How far apart is your nodes? How big your EMI problem will be (and how strong protection is required) is significantly tied to location of your infrastructure. If they are all contained in the same building a tiny TVS diode, such as the SM712 will suffice. However, if you are outside, with a cable that is some hundred meters ...


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For reference: I ended up using the INA116 because it was designed specifically for this application, and because of its advertised built-in protection. For the ESD protection I first put a large value resistor in series with the inputs, similar to user68868's answer, but without a capacitor. In theory, the resistor should already limit the current to a ...


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