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In computing, floating point describes a method of representing an approximation of a real number in a combination of significant digits, usually in the [1..2] range, and an exponential of 2. This allows to store higher precision and much larger range with the same amount of bits of fixed point numbers.
A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. Typical operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square root, and bitshifting.