Anything related to inverting amplifiers, i.e. amplifier circuits whose output is an amplified replica of the input but which exhibit a 180° additional phase shift.

Anything related to inverting amplifiers, i.e. amplifier circuits whose output is an amplified replica of the input but which exhibit a 180° additional phase shift.

If the input is called \$x(t)\$, then the output \$y(t)\$ of an ideal (i.e. perfectly linear, with infinite bandwidth) inverting amplifier is:

$$ y(t) = - \; A \; x(t-t_d) $$

Where \$A > 1\$ is the gain of the amplifier and \$t_d > 0\$ is its propagation delay. The minus sign before the gain is what makes the amplifier inverting.

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