36

Why are the three lines in each group isolated from each other? Is there an electrical reason for this? Impedance, power factor, corona discharge and resistive loss effects are improved by spacing a number of conductors apart to form a larger effective single conductor. The combination of multiple wires in this manner is usually termed a "bundle". ...


25

Although the question has provided limited details, this answer presents a somewhat different hypothesis from the standard assumption that there's an inductive coil hidden in there somewhere. The charger in question possibly uses a Piezoelectric Transformer instead of the magnetic (inductive) transformers usually seen for isolation. Does the charger looks ...


23

That "transformer" is a common mode choke. It's used to suppress EMI (either being induced onto the line and affecting the circuit or being transmitted from the circuit out over the line). It's called "common mode" because it's very effective in suppressing HF currents that are common to both lines.


21

Yes, it's for a sort of clearance. Depending on the voltage and the environment (eg. dust, humidity) for safety (and safety agency approvals) you may need clearance across surfaces that is in the 8mm or even greater range. That's inconvenient in a 2-dimensional design like a PCB (on a barrier strip or switch, you can have a 3D barrier between terminals ...


20

It will not unduly compromise the galvanic isolation or safety because it is is an XY rated safety capacitor. It's also low capacitance (less than 1 nF) so the impedance at mains frequency is rather high and the resulting current will be low, even if L and N were accidentally reversed and a path was present from -DC OUT to earth. Although the working ...


15

Atmel AVR042: AVR Hardware Design Considerations tell us that the capacitor on the reset pin is not necessary. Personally I think it's overkill. There is no reason for you to continue making dozens of AVR circuits, each and every one with that redundant capacitor. As for the reset pullup resistor: The reset line has an internal pull-up resistor, but if ...


14

Kapton tape is a widely available industry standard product for this scenario. You can view the specs here - from table 3 you can see that it has a dielectric strength of over 100kV/mm, plenty strong enough for your purposes. It comes in different thicknesses but any standard 'off the shelf' kapton tape will suffice. I'd recommend it over electrical tape as ...


11

Typical solutions I've used are either Kapton tape: Or Sil-Pad: Sil-Pad 400 is a composite of silicone rubber and fiberglass. The material is flame retardant and is specially formulated for use as a thermally conductive insulator. The primary use for Sil-Pad 400 is to electrically isolate power sources from heat sinks. If you use a sil-pad the ...


11

The magnetic ones (and some other non-optical types) transfer only changes to the state. Although that page you linked says that they work to DC, that's only because there is a latch on the other side that maintains the last known state. Consider the NVE IL710 In some cases, this could be a deal killer. Secondly, another disadvantage is cost. You'll never ...


10

Power the circuit you are testing thru the isolation transformer, and the scope normally (not thru the isolation transformer). It does matter which of the scope or circuit you isolate, since the scope has a chassis and connectors that you can easily touch. You want that stuff grounded so that the dangerous parts are a little harder to touch. Note however ...


10

You can if you only need functional isolation. If safety isolation is required you need a transformer designed for that. Since you are only powering half the primary you can only put in half of the primary current so you only get half the VA rating of the transformer, so compared to a real isolating transformer you end up with twice as much iron and an ...


10

Galvanic isolation means that no (significant) current can flow between two parts of the circuit (here, the input side and the output side). It doesn't mean the output voltage of a circuit has to be lower than the input voltage. Galvanic isolation is very important in mains power supplies, because a failure to galvanically isolate the two sides may put the ...


9

While I understand that you are asking about how to use a current-sense resistor to sense current and then transfer the value over an isolation boundary, there are some alternatives to consider before you consider the decision finalized. (Note that you didn't give any specifications or requirements such as bandwidth, packaging, or current range, so the ...


9

The older ones with substantial weight to them all contain transformers, so they will certainly be correctly isolated. Most of the newer lightweight ones also contain small high-frequency transformers, so they also ought to be correctly isolated; however I would have my doubts about the very cheapest and possibly counterfeit "iphone charger" type of product....


9

If the insulation on one fails, the remaining one will cop 4,500 VDC which will definitely make it fail. There's also no guarantee the voltage will spread evenly across them - the insulation on the devices might be measured in MΩ, but if one device is 1 MΩ and the other is 3 MΩ the voltages across each will be 1,125V and 3,375V and you are in for a bad day. ...


9

I don't agree that you need to be an expert in medical device design to accomplish this task, but you do need to do some research. Get a copy of IEC60601 and study it. There is a lot more to this type of project than just isolating the patient from the computer. You're going to need to treat your USB connection as if it were mains. Find a transformer that ...


8

First, notice that there is nothing near where the train is touching the overhead wire. Distance is insulation. Then if you look closely you will probably see insulators in serveral places in the mechanical gizmo that pushes the contact against the overhead wire. The same problem applies to high voltage transmission lines. The big ones have metal towers, ...


8

Almost every TO220 packaged IC that you can obtain will have the most negative circuit point on the centre terminal and tab. "Insulated tab" versions are often available in cases where an exposed negative tab is liable to be a major disadvantage in many applications. The reason for the negative tab is that this point is at the potential of the IC substrate ...


8

By not connecting earth mains to neutral, you're allowing the wall's line voltage to "float". I.e., although the hot and neutral line will always be 120VAC with respect to each other, there's nothing stopping them from rising above ground potential. The stick figure on the right will get a nasty shock if the line is floating far above earth ground--which is ...


8

The vast majority of people only get in contact with electricity via an appliance, tool or other device. If you connect the neutral to the earth and earth all the devices a circuit breaker will likely trip if the earth resistance is low enough. If you'd isolate the neutral you would not know unless you touch the neutral or the neutral makes contact with the ...


8

Sure they have transformers: - The transformer looks different to a regular AC type but it's still the largest single component on the PCB but a whole lot smaller than it would be for 50/60 Hz operation. The transformer is the big yellow taped thing in front of the heat sink at the back/left. SMPSs also use opto-isolators for feeding back a measure of the ...


8

That is what's known as a common-mode choke. It presents a high impedance to any common-mode currents which might flow in the + and - pairs. Any common-mode currents which flow in the attached ethernet cable will have a strong tendency to radiate at levels in excess of legal EMC limits. An ideal common-mode choke will present no impedance to differential ...


8

Looks like a common mode voltage problem to me. Although differential signalling, it still needs a common GND. (source) Replace your 1nf 500v capacitor with a jumper. Or wire signal ground to all nodes. Shield still stays connected to earth. The shield is connected to the Chassis ground on the various devices in the loop - and not at the 'master' end - ...


8

Is there any reason this wouldn't work the way I think it would? You cannot expect that circuit to work because the guitar signal ground connection has to connect into the op-amp circuit ground node and without that connection you are just going to get noise. The impact of this is that you are not therefore isolating the two receiver circuits as you ...


8

The spikes seem to have a few common heights that are roughly related by factors of 2, which strongly suggests that they are noise-induced single-bit errors in the binary data. One good way to address this is to take the standard deviation of all the data, and then simply throw away any samples that are more than, say, 2σ from the mean. Another ...


7

I always just use a 10k pullup resistor to Vcc on the /Reset pin and have never had any problems. It's also generally a good idea to include a 100nF capacitor near the Vcc pin between Vcc and GND for stable chip operation. In my opinion the capacitor on the reset pin is not necessary, which is to say I have never included one in any AVR circuit I have ...


7

The STP12PF06 datasheet (first google hit for 'to-220p to-220fp') shows that the f version has a metal tab, and the fp version has only plastic on the outside (at least at the front, but I assume also on the back). This makes it easier to mount the package galvanically isolated, but the plastic layer seems to add some thermal resistance: the rthj-case of ...


7

There are two keys to making such a concentrically wound design work safely at mains voltage: For most insulating materials used for the interwinding film, mylar included, DTI (distance through insulation) does not determine how much insulation is needed, and a single layer of mylar tape suffices as a result. Creepage (i.e. distance along the insulation ...


7

The whole separation of grounds thing is a common source of misunderstanding and cargo cult engineering. Except for devices that are specifically designed to provide isolation (IE, digital isolators, isolating amplifiers), all of the ground pins on an IC, regardless of what they're labeled, are really the same ground. They are labeled differently because ...


7

Looks like too much circuitry, which leads to more cost, complexity, failures. There is nothing in the question that indicates anything more than series resistors are required. Adding components, like isolated switching power supplies, adds components with much higher failure rates than a few resistors and diodes. The circuit below is well protected, ...


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