Math or Mathematics is the abstract study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.

Mathematics is the abstract study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics.

Concepts in engineering are generally analyzed using mathematical models. Any given concept or component may have more than one applicable model, with each having varying degrees of precision or domains of application.

Processes can generally be divided into continuous-domain and discrete-domain. Continuous-domain processes can be modeled using differential equations, while discrete-domain processes can be modeled using difference equations. In principle, a complete mathematical model of a system allows one to compute any past or future state of the system. However, in the case of systems which exhibit a mixture of continuous and discrete dynamics, no single set of equations can provide a complete mathematical model.