Polarity is a conceptual entity. Pole means a direction. However, an object is called as "having polarity" or "having specific polarity" means a preference to a differential-behavior of something in forward and backward direction.
In simple words, polarity means directionality. Or different behavior in the possible 2 directions... forward and backwards.
Polarity could be found in a circuit-component (such as battery, diode, cathode ray tube, electrolytic capacitor etc), or in an invisible field (Electric field (+/-), Magnetic field(North/South) etc.) or even in an array of macroscopic object (such as an array of small leads in a "bensia pencil" or stacking-lead non-sharpening pencil).
Some parts those have 2 poles but does not show a specific polarity, are resistor, non-electrolytic capacitor etc.