14

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab The resistors divider works always exactly the same. For very precise measurement you need a low TCR value resistors. The tolerance doesn't matter if you will insert a calibration factor in the MCU, else you can use 0.1% tol. resistors. Now, what errors will be amplified? For sure the offset ...


8

I prefer to return back to the original papers when trying to explain (or understand) an effect. If you were taking a class in the 1960's, you'd be taught the details. But modern teaching has so much else to cover and it usually sacrifices deeper approaches that include a physical understanding in the interests of getting on with the business of teaching the ...


5

Depends on the power supply. If it's a simple thing, like a transformer + rectifier + capacitor, the power supply will go "Okey dokey!" And give you the current you are requesting. Then, you are in a "race condition" as to whether the power supply will destroy itself, wiring will set the building on fire (e.g. an AC mains source), or an ...


3

I've simplified and redrawn your two charge pump circuits (or 2 stages of them, at least) in a way that illustrates how they are almost exactly the same: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab See how they are equivalent to the two circuits you gave us? The only difference between the two is that in the second example (from the ...


3

Assuming no protections, one of two things will happen: if your output resistance/impedance is the bottleneck, then as you increase output current, your output voltage will drop because more and more voltage is lost across the resistance which is inherently in series with the output (via components). At some point, the output voltage has dropped so low that ...


2

No, because you're missing one of the most important parameters, and that's the thermal resistance of the object you're cooling. If the object is superbly well insulated, say in a vacuum with metalised Mylar heat shields, then it will leak practically no heat, and you can use the Peltier module graphs of power versus temperature at zero heat flow. If the ...


2

Here's a reference for a 0-3V adjustable LM317 power supply without the minimum 1.2 - 1.3V output voltage limitation. https://www.edn.com/use-an-lm317-as-0-to-3v-adjustable-regulator/#id2782607-48-a


2

When driving the N MOSFET, most drivers put out a voltage 12V or more than the source, which is typically enough to drive even the most demanding MOSFETS. The problem is when your Vcc is not high enough, you cannot depend on that Vcc+12 being enough, so the driver has to generate a gate voltage that is Vs+12, and this is where the pulse generator and extra ...


2

The designer was too lazy to figure out the appropriate level shifter with bootstrap. Ok, to be more charitable, they only wanted to see how the SiC device behaved by itself, so they control gate-source bias directly. As it's an n-FET, the gate has to be driven higher than source to turn it on, but not too high such that it will cause the gate to break down. ...


2

Here are my simulations about "starting" behavior. UJ3C120080K3S for SiC (1200V 8A) and 6EWH06FN-E (600V 6A) for diode (should be changed). I will update ... diode voltage too low. Changed for a 1200 V. Peaks are same. You can see that there is (ok, there are short ... but not negligible when choosing devices ...) important peaks of voltage of ...


2

If it has an I2C EPROM, like the BR24L02W from Rohm, you are in luck. add ESP8266 and your own firmware with extra battery and you have a wireless solution. You may want to get a protocol analyzer with an I2C adapter, such as https://www.ikalogic.com/scanastudio/ Then decide on protocol from analyzing the messages, create a memory map from new (reset) of ...


2

That's very likely to be a custom microcontroller or ASIC. You'll likely have a hard time hacking it to the extent that you can find the numbers you need. I'd say the easier way to do it would be to find the analog output of the pressure sensor, T it off in a way it won't interfere with the device functionality, and use your own microcontroller to find the ...


2

1000 V / us is very fast, approximately the same risetime as Shottkey TTL. At that high a voltage, a very small amount of stray capacitance will have a real impact on the risetime. Compared to a 10 V signal, the total energy required to charge up stray capacitance will be 10,000 times greater. Also, transistors with high voltage ratings have high collector-...


2

When Clk is Low the first Cap is charged from 5v source: Then Clk goes High and the upper Cap is charged from Clk + first Cap to 10v (minus drops), so this two voltages are added to upper Cap:


1

Can somebody help me find what Ic represents here? I mean, is Ic the average, rms, or something else? It's a DC current if you want it to be or, it's a peak current if the applied voltage (\$V_{CE}\$) is pulsed. It compares collector current against an x-axis of collector-emitter voltage so, whatever waveform is used for one is used for the other.


1

First, your precision is 12 bit. So, at 24V, 1 step is about 6mV. At 1.8V, it is 0.4mV The errors come from: Resistor tolerance. This you can calibrate if needed. Else use a matched pair. Eg: Y0115V0522BV0L. Thermal noise in the resistors. Yes, this will be multiplied. Oversampling can help. EMI. I hope you are only needing to measure DC and hence, can ...


1

If you 'daisy chain' devices, it will increase the current requirements of the devices upstream. For example if the 3.3V 900mA regulator sources it's power from 3.8V 2A regulator (And the original requirement for 3.8 is 2A), then the 3.8 line would need an additional 900mA or 2.9A (if it had not been factored in already). When stepping down voltage, DC DC ...


1

I am using the SG3525A IC to modulate an audio signal into PWM that is then used to drive MOSFETS for a class D audio amplifier You might be incorrect in your way of thinking about how the SG3525A works: - It isn't like a H-bridge output because the PWM controls the width of both red and blue pulses as shown above. In between the red and blue pulse at the ...


1

Following is a possible input configuration from the test setup in ON semiconductor datasheet. You would apply your audio signal (eventually) to the wiper of the POT. You will need to find proper bias and matching impedance. The coupling may look like Pi-HPF, R_shunt-C_series-R_shunt. The first problem will be the offset, the minimum PWM. Below is a ...


1

For comparison you can see that a GDT for 240VAC mains has a rated DC breakdown voltage of 600VDC, compared to your's 350VDC. The same also applies to all of your varistors, they should have a breakdown voltage somewhere around 450VDC. The MOV is slower response compared to the GDT, so the GDT strikes first. But after the spike has left, the GDT will still ...


1

The relationships shown by the authors can be found by simple manipulations as illustrated below: As you rightfully pointed out, you need to plot 1/Q to obtain the curve they display and I agree that it can be misleading at first sight but all is correct. The important point here is that efficient converters require less heatsinking and means to evacuate ...


1

Once the author has said $$\eta = \dfrac{P_{out}}{P_{in}} \tag{1.1}$$ he's said all that needs to be said. He goes on to demonstrate that you can play around with the algebra to define other quantities like Q, which presumably means 'quality factor', which is output/loss, which is no more 'fundamental' than \$\eta\$ which is output/input. I've not heard the ...


1

A control system can operate in different ways depending whether the output must faithfully track a variable control input or must firmly keep a specific fixed output value while fighting incoming perturbations. An example for the first definition is a steering wheel imposing an angle to the car wheels via an electric drive: as the driver turns the wheel you ...


1

The job of a Design or Component Engineer is to find an equivalent or better that fits in the same form or can be designed to fit. What are your requirements? free advice? TO-220 Unfortunately all the new, best FETs are in SMD. Can you use that?


1

Even if the reluctance of the metal parts was zero, the reluctance of the entire magnetic circuit is dominated by that of the air-gaps. The point of the exercise is to compare the total reluctance of air-gap + k/infinity, with air-gap + k/4500


1

For i) wouldn't infinity drive the reluctance to approach zero as it is in the demominator? Your formula here: - Appears to be based on this relationship: - That formula has nothing that can be driven to infinity; it is just based on material values and dimensions. Also wouldn't this result in flux being infinite? If reluctance is zero then flux would ...


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