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If you're talking about a signal in the context of digital signal processing (DSP) you can think of it like a WAV audio file: the time axis is discrete, and the amplitude (value) axis is also discrete. Note this does not mean the discrete steps are uniform. For example if the signal has floating point values instead of integer or fixpoint, then the values ...


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exactly per jwh20 in the comments: Use a counter aka frequency divider (wiki link, see "digital dividers" section), from the common clock. You can divide by any positive integer value, not just powers of two. Look up "counter" IC's. If you are in a microcontroller, the same can be done with common on-chip timer/counter hardware. With a ...


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He is not assuming X0 to be 0, he is defining X0 to be 0. The formula for the amplitude of the coefficients is undefined at coefficient 0. If you try to calculate it from the formula given, you will arrive at zero, infinity, or arguably any number in between. It's rather like the behaviour of the Fourier transform of a pulse response. You can fit the ratio ...


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The mistake was here: - You assumed that the rules that apply on the s-plane also apply to the z-plane. They don't because when you map the left hand side of the s-plane to the z-plane you get a unit circle: - It's a unit circle (amplitude 1) because the s-plane Nyquist frequency is \$\pi\$ radians per second (0.5 Hz). So, everything inside the rectangle ...


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Coincidence means synchronous detection. Since the Geiger triggers from a partial discharge of ionization from high energy X-ray or gamma waves (and other wavelengths like neutron bursts), a residual charge is stored and accumulates. The difference level between the “activation threshold and the sum of the residual charge and incoming excitation pulse level ...


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Aggregations are processed signals. An aggregator reads the raw signals and returns interesting summaries, ranging from simple analog sums to sophisticated digital functions.


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A particular example of your operator is \$\phi=-\pi/2\$ which produces the Hilbert Transform. You could implement it by taking the Fourier transform and phase shifting each component by something which kind of depends on \$\omega\$... negative frequencies are shifted by the opposite phase. This really is a non-trivial operation because you need to integrate ...


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I found a scholarly article that seems pretty good at https://www.arrl.org/files/file/Technology/tis/info/pdf/9208019.pdf I have never made a direct conversion receiver but I have all the parts. My guess is that it will make sounds similar to a superheterodyne that has its beat frequency oscillator on. I would make any kind of HF receiver with an RF ...


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I'll only answer point (1). Noise powers add; so you can use an RMS sum to add noise voltages. (square each voltage, add, and take the root of the sum. BUT... all sources must be normalised to the same gain. So you can: RMS add V1,V2, then multiply by gain A of TR1, then RMS add that and v3 scale V1,V2 by A, then RMS sum ... sqrt((A.V1)^2 + (A.V2)^2 + V3^2)...


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I will start by saying that this looks like a better fit for a low end FPGA (like an Artix-7 or Spartan-7) rather than an MCU. But in any case I will address which kinds of MCUs might be appropriate first. The ADS7047 uses a SPI bus. The datasheet says that you can achieve 3Msps with a SPI clock of 60Mhz. https://www.ti.com/lit/gpn/ads7047 what type of ...


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