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Signal Modulation with Carrier Wave?

The FM radio channel is a rather more complex mix of "sub-carrier" signals modulated on an FM carrier. Perhaps commercial equipment uses an Intermediate Frequency before converting to the ...
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Signal Modulation with Carrier Wave?

For your first question, FM means frequency modulation of the carrier wave. For a zero modulating signal the carrier wave is at the nominal frequency. For minimum and maximum modulating signal, the ...
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Signal Modulation with Carrier Wave?

Radio stations (AM or FM) are actually allocated a narrow band of frequencies centered on their advertised frequency. The extra bandwidth is used to accomodate the sidebands generated when you ...
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Signal Modulation with Carrier Wave?

yet I know FM is specific to a single frequency That is incorrect. The frequency of the carrier varies in FM, which stands for FREQUENCY MODULATION. There does not need to be another carrier which ...
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How to construct a 4 input AC AND logic gate?

This solution has many components but is very energy efficient. R01-R04 and R09 limit AC peak currents, fusible versions recommended C05-C09 form AC current sources of around 5mA Two diodes each form ...
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How to construct a 4 input AC AND logic gate?

Here's how. The relay contacts K1, K2, K3 & K4, in series, serve as the 4 - input AC 'AND' gate that energises the indicator lamp. When no safety switch is tripped, all the relays are actuated ...
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1 vote

Unexpected Amplifier Warm Up

the main problem is inefficiency induced heat rise. The schematic shows 4 to 8 ohms making the impedance mismatch uncertain. The datasheet shows 32 Ohm is optimal for 9V and lower impedance speakers ...
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Time invariant system with sinc impulse

If there is any 't' term multiplied in the output then the system will not be time-invariant. Yet 't' can be a negative exponent numerator or a denominator, dt or trig. functions and many others. ...
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Analog television: What is the difference between the first IF and second (demodulated) IF?

It's helpful to include a link to the datasheet even if, as you note, it doesn't explain the circuit operation. Why is the video carrier frequency 38.9 MHz but the audio 33.4 MHz? On-air the audio ...
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Interfacing TDC sensor (inductive pickup) to a microcontroller

I've worked with these before and I get away with using pretty vanilla op-amps or comparators as the voltage from the sensor is rather large. Here's a sample I just made with a Toyota 4A-GE 20V ("...
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