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Surface-Mount Technology (SMT) refers to the way components are mounted on a PCB: SMDs (Surface-Mounted Devices) have pins or contacts which lay on top of the PCB's pads, without the need for holes in the PCB.

SMT in PCB production became widely used in the late '80s.

• Miniaturization: which also saves space. Components as small as 0.4 mm (01005 resistors) or 16-pins ICs in 5 mm$^2$ (e.g. LPC1102UK)