Hot answers tagged

30 votes

Gain margin and Phase Margin Physical Meaning

Gain and phase margin are usually applied to systems that are amplifiers of some sort with negative feedback around them. The more negative feedback, the tighter the system is controlled. However, ...
user avatar
14 votes
Accepted

How do power grid systems supply power to new loads coming online?

Where that additional 5MW of power came from instantly until the power system frequency go down and active power governors speed up the generators (obviously there is a time delay)? The voltage on ...
user avatar
  • 63.7k
14 votes
Accepted

Does the DC component of any signal also carry information?

A fixed DC signal has information - the DC offset - that would be lost if it were blocked (that is, reset to 0V potential.) The bandwidth of that information is nevertheless 0Hz. This idea comes up in ...
user avatar
  • 40.5k
10 votes

Why embedded systems are called as embedded systems?

"Embedded systems" are controllers (or computers) which are DESIGNED INTO (and built INSIDE) of the larger product. As distinguished from general-purpose controllers (or computers) which are separate,...
user avatar
9 votes
Accepted

How to measure three resistors in a triangle

It is possible to make the measurement in a single cycle. The general technique is called 'guarding', and it's the staple technique used by 'in circuit test equipment' (ICT) for measuring components ...
user avatar
  • 142k
9 votes

Is there an English word for the output response of a non-minimum phase system?

I've always heard that being called undershoot. And, in this Control Systems magazine article on Nonminimum-Phase Zeros they also call it initial undershoot.
user avatar
  • 2,340
8 votes

Delay is calculated wrong in embedded C

The delay function is broken. First of all, you should avoid writing delays with busy-loops. Such delays are unstable, unreliable and non-portable. They create a tight coupling to the system clock ...
user avatar
  • 14.1k
8 votes

Can we connect Earth , Neutral and Digital Ground together in electronics system?

No, do not connect neutral to earth or digital ground. In some parts of the world the mains plugs are not polarized so there is a 50% chance it ends up connecting live to earth or digital ground.
user avatar
  • 89.5k
8 votes
Accepted

Is there an English word for the output response of a non-minimum phase system?

I think the correct term in English would be “initial inverse response”. The system initially does the opposite of what is commanded. For example, in this book. So it’s even worse than a dead time ...
user avatar
8 votes

How do power grid systems supply power to new loads coming online?

When you connect a new load, it becomes part of the larger circuit. The current starts flowing through the new load. This is a transient process and the associated electromagnetic field propagates ...
user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

How much effort goes into designing and laying out a PC motherboard?

For a point of reference developing a reference design for a dual processor server type motherboard typically consumes the efforts of: Three or four board design engineers who own the design and ...
user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

How to roughly know if a electronic scheme will fail soon and protect from it?

You have to look for information about RAMS (reliability, availability, maintainability and safety) engineering. Basic RAMS concepts and techniques Failure rate: number of expected failures of a ...
user avatar
  • 5,631
7 votes

Does the DC component of any signal also carry information?

There is pretty much nothing special about the DC bin, since it integrates frequencies around 0 Hz, the bandwidth is dependent on the FFT length, as for the other bins. So it is possible to encode ...
user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

What does it mean to have a pole or zero at infinity?

Poles at infinity are obtained when the order of the numerator is higher than the order of the denominator. Consider a transfer function G(s) with a numerator of order n, and denominator of order m, ...
user avatar
  • 7,274
6 votes

What is the reason behind transfer function representation valid for only LTI system?

The reason why transfer functions work so well for linear time-invariant (LTI) systems (and don't for non-linear systems) is that they are the Laplace transform (or, in discrete time) the Z-transform ...
user avatar
  • 3,593
5 votes

How does the function inside the rectangular function work?

\$\operatorname{rect}(\cdot)\$ is a function that has value \$1\$ if whatever appears inside those parentheses (it's called the argument of the rect function and I used \$\cdot\$ instead of some ...
user avatar
5 votes

Standard way to tension a string using a motor?

Use a motor driving a worm-gear reduction with the string locked to the output shaft. In order to tension the string, turn the motor ON in the proper direction until the required tension is achieved, ...
user avatar
  • 17.1k
5 votes

Gain margin and Phase Margin Physical Meaning

May I add a 4th answer in short? 1.) A circuit with feedback is unstable in case the loop gain has a phase shift of 360deg at a frequency where the loop gain magnitude is still larger the 0 dB. Note ...
user avatar
  • 22.6k
5 votes

Gain margin and Phase Margin Physical Meaning

People tend to make this way too complicated and difficult to understand. Stability margins are only defined for an ideal, linear transfer function model - a model expressed in terms of rational ...
user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

In practice, what is the difference between the "nominal plant model" and the "plant model"?

Is the nominal model the desired model? (i.e. do we want to reach it?) In much the same way as I'd like a rich stranger to die and bequeath $100 million to me, yes, it's the desired model. Is the ...
user avatar
  • 36.3k
5 votes

How do power grid systems supply power to new loads coming online?

We can't simply connect a huge load to a power system without informing the authorities(5 MW is really a huge load) When such a huge load is connected to the existing balanced grid, the grid will ...
user avatar
  • 47
5 votes

How do power grid systems supply power to new loads coming online?

There are always small fluctuations in both frequency and voltage in the electrical grid. The size of these fluctuations depends on the power of the generators in the grid as well as the load ...
user avatar
  • 51
5 votes
Accepted

Second order transfer functions, intrinsic time constants and responses

Setup I'll keep this short, mostly because I don't know that for which you are ferreting. With KCL, you have: $$\begin{align*} C\frac{\text{d}\,v_{_{\text{O}{\left(t\right)}}}}{\text{d}t}+\frac{v_{_{\...
user avatar
  • 70.2k
5 votes
Accepted

Finding transfer function from Bode plot

For a 2nd-order low-pass filter you can use this to calculate what the damping ratio, (\$\zeta\$) is: - Image from my basic website. Look at the peaking frequency in your spectrum and calculate the ...
user avatar
  • 384k
4 votes
Accepted

Multiple DTMF circuit interfaced to one microcontroller, will it work?

Yes, you certainly can have three of your DTMF decoder circuits connected to your microcontroller. However, even though the three telephone lines nominally share the same ground (somewhere), you ...
user avatar
  • 165k
4 votes
Accepted

What is the significance of the standard form of 1st and 2nd order transfer functions?

What is the physical meaning of "first" and "second order"? ... How do I know if a system is first or second order? A 1st order system has one energy storage element and requires just one initial ...
user avatar
4 votes

What is the significance of the standard form of 1st and 2nd order transfer functions?

The order of a transfer function is determined by the highest order of the denominator. This order gives the number of poles and - thus - determines the roll-off characteristics of the transfer ...
user avatar
  • 22.6k
4 votes
Accepted

Unit input response - LTI sysem

Assuming that with "associate" you mean "put in series" that is you hook S1 output to S2 input then you are not doing anything wrong. Problem is that sometimes (plenty of times) solving a convolution ...
user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Control theory: is there any actual application for D in ABCD matrix?

A lag-lead compensator in state-space form will have non-zero \$D\$. In \$H_2\$ or \$H_{\infty}\$ control design if the performance variables include the input (e.g. keep it 'small') then again \$D\$...
user avatar
  • 1,234

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible