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53 votes

Why would an AND gate need six transistors?

Your classmate is wrongly treating the transistors in your circuit as magical devices whose behaviour is completely controlled by something that appears at the gate and only the gate. They are failing ...
DKNguyen's user avatar
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48 votes
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Why aren't fully asynchronous circuits more prevalent?

I spent some years in a startup commercialising async design technology, so I'm familiar with the reasons: async isn't intrinsically faster. The worst-case path delay remains the same. It's just that ...
pjc50's user avatar
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34 votes
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Why would an AND gate need six transistors?

In the logic gate level digital design abstraction, inputs are assumed to switch from logic HIGH to logic LOW and vice-versa instantaneously. This is done to simplify logic design. However, in the ...
Shashank V M's user avatar
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34 votes
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What is the standard procedure for analogue IC tapeout?

Congratulations! The opportunity to tape out a project of your own is an exciting, although potentially intimidating opportunity (as you yourself say). This is a going to be a pretty broad, high-level ...
nanofarad's user avatar
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24 votes

Can a NOT gate be used to achieve 180 degree phase shift?

What is 180 degrees phase shift? When the signal is a sine wave, a 180 degrees phase shift delays the signal for half the period of that sine wave, the sine wave then looks inverted: Can an inverter ...
Bimpelrekkie's user avatar
14 votes
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Why does decreasing the CMOS supply voltage also decrease the maximum circuit frequency?

Decreasing the voltage decreases the maximum frequency that can be used such that the operation of the digital system is as desired. This is because the equivalent resistance, \$R_{eq}\$, of the CMOS ...
Shashank V M's user avatar
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13 votes
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Are chicken bits left in space-qualified ICs?

The definition of chicken bit in Wiktionary is incorrect, and the extension by OP [as hardwired] is even more wrong. The chicken bit is a configuration bit (software configurable! and usually ...
Ale..chenski's user avatar
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13 votes
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How do I get more clarity on the meaning of "integration" in VLSI?

You’re overthinking this. An ‘integrated circuit’ (IC) just means a device that has more than one active element (diode, FET or BJT) implemented on a single die. That’s it. The IC is differentiated ...
hacktastical's user avatar
12 votes
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What is the difference between a tristate buffer and a transmission gate?

The tristate driver you present contains a transmission gate (you can count the top inverter too as part of it). Without the buffer (formed by the two inverters) it will transmit signals in either ...
Spehro Pefhany's user avatar
10 votes
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How can I design a digital circuit where the output is 5 times the input?

If you draw out the truth table it becomes simple. You have two inputs so there are only four possible output values. In - Out ----------- 00 | 0000 01 | 0101 10 | 1010 11 | 1111 Now look down the ...
GodJihyo's user avatar
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9 votes

Why is de-assertion of an asychronous reset a problem compared to its assertion?

The assertion timing doesn't matter because the whole point is that all the elements of the circuit enter a valid/known reset state. It generally doesn't matter what order they do it in, only that ...
Evan's user avatar
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9 votes

What determines the maximum clock rate for a CPU?

The present x86 isn’t made from the ‘same process and materials’ as the 6502, any more than a modern automobile and a Model T are. Your point is taken that they’re both based on silicon, just as cars ...
hacktastical's user avatar
9 votes

What is the difference between a tristate buffer and a transmission gate?

The transmission gate is not a logic element, and it is not directional. It's a switch that, when enabled. connects two circuit nodes together, forcing them to (nearly) the same voltage. That voltage ...
John Doty's user avatar
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8 votes

Why would an AND gate need six transistors?

So could anyone explain to me why an AND gate needs six transistors? An AND gate does not need 6 transistors - this is because you're specifically referring to FCMOS (Fully Complementary MOS) where a ...
edmz's user avatar
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8 votes
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Prevent spikes during transition of inputs in AND gate

There's nothing that can be done to eliminate output spikes in this circuit. The AND gate is suffering from an 'internal race condition'. This would often be referred to as a 'decoding spike', as they ...
Neil_UK's user avatar
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7 votes
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Which software is used to design (and simulate) IC?

Digital design Digital circuit design is usually done using a HDL language like Verilog or VHDL. This can be simulated on digital level with tools like Modelsim / Questa. https://eda.sw.siemens.com/...
GNA's user avatar
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7 votes
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Why does lowering VDD increases the delay for digital circuits?

Most of these circuits are CMOS, particularly if they support a wide range of supply voltages. In a MOSFET, the higher the difference between the gate and source voltages, the higher the current that ...
Cristobol Polychronopolis's user avatar
7 votes

How do processor transistor counts keep increasing, without geometric scaling?

For a given size chip area, the number of transistors on it continues to increase as the size of the transistor -the feature size - decreases. What that comment is implying is the node name, 5 nm for ...
SteveSh's user avatar
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6 votes

How to store the difference of 2 voltages on capacitor?

This is standard technique and quite a good way to subtract voltages, as long as they are static/slow moving. You use analog switches to first connect your capacitor between V1 and V2, now VCAP = V1-...
Henry Crun's user avatar
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6 votes
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Which type of mosfet used to make CMOS inverter?

Enhancement Very few applications need to use depletion MOSFETs. And only a few models are available, all of one polarity. So, yes, Enhancement MOSFET.
Davide Andrea's user avatar
6 votes

What is the difference between a tristate buffer and a transmission gate?

Transmission gates are transparent connections. They behave like low-resistance switches, connecting or disconnecting two signals. Current can flow in either direction. The signal it passes can be ...
hacktastical's user avatar
5 votes
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Random clock Generation with unequal 1s and 0s distribution?

Think of the contents of the N-bit LFSR as an N-bit integer. This number will have a uniform distribution of values from 1 to 2N - 1. You can generate a variable density of mask bits by comparing this ...
Dave Tweed's user avatar
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5 votes

Why VDDIO is more than VDDcore supply in VLSI/ integrated chips?

I have seen VDDIO supply is more than VDDCore. This is required, as the smallest transistors (and other structures) in modern chip technology cannot support higher voltages than VDDCore limits. ...
Turbo J's user avatar
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5 votes

Why VDDIO is more than VDDcore supply in VLSI/ integrated chips?

Large integrated circuits usually have multiple power planes to meet the requirements of different parts of the circuitry on the chip. Splitting core and I/O supplies onto separate rails is quite ...
alex.forencich's user avatar
5 votes

What is standard about standard cells in layout designing?

Standard cells usually refer to blocks of logic that are arranged into a library of elements. This is the library you buy from a fabrication facility (FAB) when you order their cervices for chip ...
Ale..chenski's user avatar
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5 votes

Asynchronous Resets

The problem with asynchronous resets is that you need to avoid metastability, which happens when the timing constraints are violated. In particular you need to ensure the input signal is stable for ...
user110971's user avatar
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5 votes

How to store the difference of 2 voltages on capacitor?

Or (this depends a bit on the application and so on) use a differential amp. Can the two voltages share the same reference? simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab You might ...
danmcb's user avatar
  • 7,298
5 votes

Why would an AND gate need six transistors?

Here's a quick (and to me, easy to understand) answer, no equations needed. Others have pointed out that Vgs is what controls nmos on/off state. If you try to use nmos as a pull-up element, the nfet ...
Matt's user avatar
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