Questions tagged [voltage]

Voltage, otherwise known as electrical potential difference (denoted ∆V and measured in volts) is the difference in electric potential between two points (adapted from Wikipedia). Voltage can be constant (DC) or varying (AC).

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why is the the Line voltage drop formula is \$\Delta V=2I_1 (Rcos\theta+Xsin\theta)\$,not \$\Delta V=2I_1(\sqrt{R^2+X^2})\$?

There is a single-phase two-wire system,if the resistor \$(R)\$ of line is 1Ω and the reactance \$(X)\$ of line is 2Ω,and the power factor is \$\theta\$ .The Line voltage drop formula should be $$\...
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Circuit Analysis with constant couurent and voltage sources

This is a homework question of sorts. You are supposed to find voltage across AB. PS: new to StackExchange
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Relationship between power angle and real and apparent in ECO dataset

I am trying to parse the ECO dataset, which includes 1-second electric data collected from residential houses. Link to dataset: http://vs.inf.ethz.ch/res/show.html?what=eco-data But the relationship ...
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What is the voltage value measured by an 8-bit ADC chip showing a binary reading of 64? the reference voltage is 3.3V

I followed the explanation in this post. I did 3.3 V/256 = ‭‭0.01289 V . I also did 3.3 V/(256/1.5) = ‭0.01964 . And lastly, I used this formula: I just keep getting the wrong answer! Please could ...
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Read triangular wave with positive and negative part to Arduino

I generate a triangular wave with a 555, and I want the Arduino to read this signal. What should I do to read negative part?
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WS2812b interference and bootup behavior

TL;DR: how can a slowly rising power supply voltage on an arduino crash the WS2812bs connected to it? How can I protect a signal wire even better from electrical interference? This my question in a ...
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65 views

6.2 V zener shows lower voltage (Multisim)

I have this circuit with a 1N4735A 6.2 V zener diode. I am trying to figure out why am I measuring 5.1 V across it. The circuit is a transformerless power supply with more or less 60 mA of maximum ...
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55 views

Why can we use less voltage drop to transmit the power if the higher voltage is used?

In power distribution systems, a given amount of power can be transmitted with less voltage drop if a higher voltage is used. However,i don't understand the reason about this In my thinking,if i ...
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USB-C PD, Voltage and Current of Power Adaptors [closed]

I have a rather basic question... but I don't want to take chances. I have two MacBook Pros, one which ships with a 87W power unit, and the other a 96W power unit. Now, I understand that a device ...
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Can I use a plug rated for a DC circuit in a low voltage AC circuit?

I have an spare 2-conductor plug rated for 12VDC at 5A from an old project. I’m now working on a Class II low voltage (24VAC) projet for which I need just such a plug. Is the plug rated for the DC ...
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What could happen if I touch a constant current source for example 5 Volts 1 Amp..?

Yes, I am talking about a constant current source not a voltage source. Would the 1 Amp go to my body?
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Is it safe to touch 8 volts?

Let me say first that i'm a noob in electricity. I measured the voltage from my diy microwave-transformer-welder and it was 8. I have no idea how much amps run through it but the fact that it creates ...
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Is input noise in a dual OpAmp device common to both channels?

I'm designing an input buffer stage for a low voltage, noise sensitive application. These buffer stages consist of dual package OpAmps, with each individual OpAmp buffering the + or - input to a ...
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6answers
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How does a center tapped transformer work?

I'm having trouble understanding the electric principles that allow a center tapped transformer to work. Lets say we're working with 240/120V. I understand if you connect a voltmeter across the top ...
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Questions regarding AFG3000C function generator

I have a new function generator - model AFG3000C. I am having difficulty in understanding certain terms related to this function generator. I have tried online searches, but I couldn't get what I ...
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Constant current density

I am reading an article that says ... constant current density of \$−1.0\,\mathrm{A \cdot cm^{-2}}\$ Let's say that I have material that's \$2\,\mathrm{cm^{2}}\$, how would I calculate what's the ...
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Open Circuit Voltage with Open FET and Zener?

D2 is a 18V Zener, LM3Z18VT1, diode. M1 is a NCE01P30K. Node DO is 8V by default and 0V when the circuit activates. If M2 in the circuit below opens, what is the voltage at the gate of M1? Now ...
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How do I drive a 5W low pressure mercury UVC bulb?

How do I determine the voltage and necessary power supply for this bulb. This bulb is a UVC low pressure mercury vapor bulb used in my air purifier. It fits in a G23 Socket, normally I would expect a ...
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1answer
57 views

Function Generator Voltage and Current handling

I am using this Function Generator My circuit : FG input : 5V peak to peak. 1kHz. 1ms time period. 90% duty. I want to understand the below questions : Is it safe to do this connection? I have ...
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with a L298N controller I need to “warm up” the motor to get it to run without stopping, why and how to do it with python

I understand that this will be a very trivial question but I cannot find an explanation online, probably because in my ignorance I'm asking the wrong question, to support my explanation I'm leaving ...
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1answer
105 views

Signal voltage scaling

I have a linear range control signal from 1.75 V (0%) to 3.22 V (100%) . How can I convert this to a 0-5V signal (0-100%)? I have a single +5V supply with same 0V as control signal.
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60 views

What does it mean for a power supply to have an output range?

I had a power supply blow and I replaced it with one from the same company with the same model number. The new supply has lightly different specification than the old supply. Oddly (to me) it gives ...
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Arduino w 5V Relay Wiring

I am having trouble actuating this relay I bought off Amazon. I have been successful actuating the relay but am having issues wiring up a LED to simply turn on and off. My setup looks very similar to ...
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I fried my Raspberry Pi while using L298N but I don't understand why

Everything seems to indicate that I fried my raspberry pi: the green light wouldn't turn on, I changed the SD card for a new one but it still didn't work. That is a shame because I was having a lot ...
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How does this RPM sensor work? – Induction in an open circut

I'm looking for explanation of some basic induction concepts. It's common to see an RPM sensor for small two and four stroke engines where an open-ended wire is coiled around the spark plug's ...
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96 views

My apartment's mains voltage rises from 220 V at noon to 245 V at night

I'm Egyptian, and the standard mains voltage in Egypt is between 220 V to 240 V. The mains voltage in my apartment keeps rising daily from 220 V at noon to 245 V at night. Should I worry, and what ...
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What is maximum and minimum current through zener diode?

For a simple electronic voltage regulator using Zener diode, I use the following circuit. For deciding Rs and RL, I need to know Izmax and Izmin of the zener diode 1N4736A used. From this data sheet, ...
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56 views

Using Thévenin's Theorem / Voltage Across Independent Current Sources

I've been attempting this problem regarding the usage of Thévenin's Theorem to find the value of Io. I am able to get the correct Thevenin Resistance, however attempting to find the Thevenin Voltage ...
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Gamecube controller hack with raspberry pi

Electrical noob here. I am trying to control a gamecube controller from a raspberry pi. Meaning: I want to have wires from the pi soldered onto the board of the gamecube contoller and emulate button ...
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40 views

Circuit with dependent source confusion

Can we find the value of \$i'\$ in this circuit, considering \$I\$ and \$R\$ are known? Using Kirchhoff’s Current Law we have that \$I = i + i'\$. If the dependent source voltage was \$ki \;, \; k \...
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How do I calculate resistance when I have the voltage drop?

This is my circuit: I have the voltage drop across the LDR but I need to find the resistance.
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2answers
104 views

Why are the IV curves of capacitors and inductors ellipses?

I don't really know what the difference is between a regular diode, a zener diode, a schottky diode or an LED. Neither do I knoe the difference beetween a DIAC, a TRIAC or even a NPN transitor. The ...
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45 views

Drop-out voltage at the input using MOSFET

Please have a look at my below circuits. The first one is an MOSFET. N-MOS. Gate is fed with a function generator input of 5V peak to peak. 1kHz frequency. 1ms period. 90% duty cycle. Drain is ...
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28 views

Capacitor Voltage Hold up (During Input Power Interruption)

I want to understand how long a capacitor can provide the stable voltage for a given load current, in the event of an input voltage interruption? Suppose, I have a single 100nF input capacitor at my ...
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2answers
57 views

Understanding a voltage multiplier circuit

I have a question about this circuit. I don't really know what it does. I have searched it up on google and I found something with voltage multiplier. I don't know what it does or if it is even a ...
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Why can't i calculate the Inductive reactance in this way?

Question: \$V_1=40sin(1000t)\$,what is the value of Inductive reactance? Solution : \$Z=\frac{V_1}{I}=\frac{40}{8}=5\$,so \$5=\sqrt{R^2+X^2_L}=\sqrt{4^2+X^2_L}\$,so \$X_L=3\$ But i want to ask ...
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Calculate current/voltage: Diode in parallel with resistor

Without using Kirchoff, I want to understand how to calculate a circuit like this: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab Perhaps the ...
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1answer
28 views

Regulated Low voltage signal creator

I am trying to mimick a sensor on a car that supplies 0.7 V to the car’s computer. So what I would like is a circuit diagram to build a unit that would use the 11 to 14 V input from the car battery ...
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72 views

Potential difference between two points on ground

I noticed that when I stick digital multimeter's probes in the ground near my house it shows potential difference about 0.01-0.21 V what looks pretty high. If probes are close it's smaller when ...
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48 views

Current in a closed DC circuit

I am in the process of learning the fundamentals of electricity, however I am having trouble understanding why there is no measurable current in a closed DC circuit when there is no power consumption. ...
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78 views

Broad VF range of LED… 5-9V?

I'm not quite sure what to do with this LED, it's got a forward voltage rating of 5-9V, so I've got a lot of wiggle room and I'm not sure of the ideal (or even if there is an ideal) voltage at which ...
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Spliting wire: voltage behaviour

In a circuit the voltage drop is equal on all main "branches". In this diagram the Zener diode has 3.6 break voltage: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab In the example ...
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36 views

Power 5mm LEDs with 5V adapter instead of 2xAA?

I have a model of the Eiffel Tower illuminated with 5mm LEDs that are powered by 2 AA batteries. The LEDs come prewired with resistors and heatshrink. Basically I want to use on of the many 5v phone ...
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Higher voltage battery able to drive load longer at stable voltage?

If I've got two batteries of the same capacity, one is 12V and the other is, say, 18V with a step down buck converter, will I essentially be able to power my load at 12V for longer? I know that a ...
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Why should the \$\frac{e_5}{2}=rl_5(I_5)\$,not \$e_5=rl_5(I_5)\$ in the DC voltage drop?

I read something about the DC voltage drop, but there is something confusing me. I suppose \$e_1\$ is the voltage drop between \$A\$ and \$1\$, and \$e_2\$ is the voltage drop between \$1\$ and \$2\$....
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61 views

How to convert a PWM signal to analog

I am trying to drive a 3 pin fan using my MCU. The 3 pins of the fan are 1- Gnd, 2- Vdd, 3- Open drain RPM output The fan can draw up to 0.5 Amp. My initial idea was to use a Darlington transistor,...
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1answer
66 views

peltier not cooling anything

Hello I am trying to use 30 "tec-1 12706" peltiers along with my geothermal ground loop to cool machines. I have (2) banks of 15 in series and the two bank parallel to each other electrically. Power ...
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Power Supply Req: Need 20A 240V [migrated]

Sorry for the basic question, I am not especially electrically minded. I have a system that requires 16A and 240V power, however we only have 10A wall outlet power available. I did consider ...
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2answers
68 views

Question about the statement “Higher voltage means higher velocity of charge”

This is the phrasing that I commonly hear when talking about voltage's relationship to charge velocity...something along the lines of: In a resistor circuit, raising the voltage will increase the ...
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1answer
53 views

How to build a 18650 battery pack without a spot welder?

I'm building an autonomous boat (which needs to get me a bottle of fine whisky from Scotland) for which I want to build a battery pack. The boat is currently powered by a cheap Li-ion battery pack, ...

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