# Tag Info

### If a square wave has infinite bandwidth, how can we see it on an oscilloscope?

We can't. We see a bandlimited version. That's obvious for two reasons: perfect square signals cannot physically exist, for changing a voltage within 0 time would require an infinite amount of power ...
• 98.3k

### If a square wave has infinite bandwidth, how can we see it on an oscilloscope?

You are correct that an ideal square wave needs an infinite bandwidth as it contains frequencies up to infinite frequencies. But this is theory, ideal square waves do not exist in the real world as ...
• 81.2k
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### What does the radiation from an antenna look like?

This image: Is just a drawing, it has no meaning. It does not represent the radiation pattern of an antenna in any way ! Basically all antennas radiate (and receive) the EM waves in all directions. ...
• 81.2k
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### What is causing this distortion of a pulse wave when recorded to a reel-to-reel tape?

Your original digital signal is bent out of shape because it has been high-pass filtered by the tape recorder. Let's have a look at Korg Volca service manual and dig in the schematics, here is the ...
• 80.3k
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### Why is signal on XTAL1 and XTAL2 a sine wave (not square)?

This circuit is not a digital circuit. In fact, it is a fairly mathematically complicated non-linear analog circuit with automatic gain control with self-sustainable oscillation mode. It is called a "...
• 41.9k
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### Why is Zener avalanche noise saw tooth shaped?

Consider that you effectively have this: simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab where C is the junction capacitance, plus any external capacitance (leads, breadboard, etc). ...
• 4,309

### How do you shift a square wave down?

There are several simple options. Rail-to-rail op-amp If you have a rail-to-rail op-amp, this can be done using four resistors as follows: This will divide the signal down to 0-15V which is in the ...
• 68.8k

### If a square wave has infinite bandwidth, how can we see it on an oscilloscope?

The 'scope won't show a perfect squarewave and if you zoom in on the timebase you should be able to see the rising and falling edges with some slope on them. This will be most obvious on an analogue ...
• 178k
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### What units are kpts?

K for "thousand" pts for "points". The unit is thousands of points. How would I convert that to a wavelength unit such as meters? You can't. This is the maximum number of samples that can be ...
• 132k
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### Why IR remote waveform is a saw-tooth or am I measuring it wrong

From the TI LM358 datasheet, the maximum output slew rate of your op-amp is about 0.3 V/us: Your scope trace shows the signal has a slope of about 3 V per 10 us, pretty well matching the datasheet ...
• 132k
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### Why does putting resistors between Vcc/SDA & Vcc/SCL in I2C result in a square wave?

I2C is a bus that uses open drain outputs. An open drain is like a switch connected between the output and ground. It will not work without pullup resistors because there is nothing to make it go high....

### What protocol is this waveform?

You have done excellent reverse-engineering. Everything does point out to RS-485 physical interface with UART protocol and the bit rate is likely just standard 38400 bps based on the measurements of 3 ...
• 165k
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### How do you shift a square wave down?

How do you shift a square wave down? Just an RC will do it: - If fed with a sine wave (for the convenience of the attached picture), it will reproduce the sine wave at the output but with the DC ...
• 467k

### What are the waveforms of radio frequencies?

A modulated radio signal generally has a bandwidth which is a tiny fraction of its centre frequency. This means that any short stretch of signal will look essentially sinusoidal. It's only when you ...
• 171k

### What does the radiation from an antenna look like?

It really depends on the kind of antenna. Google will probably answer this with pictures better than I will (Google "antenna radiation pattern"). You will distinguish in shape of radiation mainly 2 ...
• 221

### Why is signal on XTAL1 and XTAL2 a sine wave (not square)?

The crystal (+C1/C2) is a very narrow bandwidth resonator/filter. Only the fundamental frequency can fit through it. Sine waves are a single pure frequncy, So it is a sine wave. Square waves are ...
• 5,433

### What is causing this distortion of a pulse wave when recorded to a reel-to-reel tape?

Magnetic recording is inherently differential; using an inductive pickup, one measures changes in the magnetic field rather than levels. This implies a rolloff at some frequency which will be ...
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### Is it possible to change Arduino Nano sine wave frequency without using PWM?

There's no (reasonable) way to do this without changing the code on the Arduino. I have a few suggestions for you: "DDS", AKA "Direct Digital Synthesis" Some other answers have ...
• 1,439

### What is causing this distortion of a pulse wave when recorded to a reel-to-reel tape?

I had a quick look at the video, and didn't see an image of a waveform. It is entirely possible that the waveform recorded in the video is just a distorted as your is, but that it still works. Tape ...
• 73.1k
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### How to make this arbitrary waveform?

The reflection about the Y axis can be obtained by inverting one of the input signals but not the other. Look carefully at the summing junctions in the following circuit, noting how the first (top) ...
• 42.2k

### What protocol is this waveform?

Since the FCC authorisation code is marked on the device, you can look it up on the FCC database. If you enter the first 3 characters (SH6) as the grantee code, you get a list of devices from that ...
• 1,465

### What is the source of this shape on my USB eye diagram?

This is absolutely perfect FS signal. Apparently the OP probes the signals at device end of the cable. The FS signals are unterminated at FAR END by USB standard, unlike in high-speed mode. All ...
• 41.9k

### Voltage spikes in triangular waveform generator circuit using LM324 op amp

This is a great example of why the various physical limitations of different op amps need to be considered. You're correct, it is not a pole. In fact, it's got nothing to do with the circuit itself, ...
• 29.2k
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### Peak to Peak vs. Amplitude

I think that the historical definition of amplitude comes from nature. When Earth was young, most things that were wavey tended to oscillate sinusoidally about a middle point. Think sea waves or a ...
• 7,601
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### Square wave to DC voltage with passive components

The following voltage doubler may give you what you want simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab It presents the peak to peak input voltage to the output, less two diode ...
• 171k

### SPI waveform on Raspberry Pi is not clean, and I'm wondering why

The spikes at the rise and fall of the blue signal are probably due to probe inductance (aka long GND wire connection). Try using as short as possible GND connection. Also as much as possible, for ...
• 311
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### Waveform at the negative terminal of an OPAMP

In the circuit, you have posted the Opamp dos not work in a linear region. More about the linear operation you can find here: Op-amp: Virtual ground principle and other doubts But instead of this, ...
• 15.4k
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### Waveform result of an equation

Do the analysis graphically. Any red section in D, E or F will cause ...
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