It is a space-vector PWM modulation. It is superior to sine-wave modulation in a way that better utilizies the DC link voltage by adding triangular waveform at frequency three times the fundamental ...

According to your image, disturbance acts on a controller output, while noise acts on a process output. Take a moving vehicle for example - obstacle on the road would be a noise, and some (unexpected)...

The only rule for polarized capacitors, such as electrolytic, tantalum etc., is that a potential on a positive ($+$) terminal is higher than the potential on a negative ($-$) terminal. If you ...

From my experience, you should get all three types. Most of the time you will be using male-to-male and male-to-female. Since using wires for breadboard connections can create quite a mess on the ...

To understand this, you need to know the neon lamp impedance. If the load is purely capacitive, then when the switch closes it charges both capacitors at the same time. Voltage on both capacitors is ...

If your computer doesn't support RS485 protocol, and if we're talking about regular PC's it most probably doesn't, then you cannot directly connect A and B to serial port. I would suggest using an USB-...

First, you have to consider that every (Zener) diode has a power rating. From this power rating, you can calculate a maximum current for the diode. E.g., if a Zener diode has a maximum power rating of ...

Yes, current sources can sink current. But be aware, not all current sources can sink current! For example, commercial laboratory power supplies can operate as constant voltage or constant current ...

The error is in line 3. It should be like this: $$\overline{(x_3+x_2)x_2} = \overline{(x_3+x_2)} + \overline{x_2} = \overline{x_3} \cdot \overline{x_2} + \overline{x_2} = \overline{x_2} (\overline{... View answer Accepted answer 2 votes I managed to find a solution. Apparently, there is a dozen of __bultin functions used to force the compiler (xc16) to use specific assembly instructions or series of instructions. For example, to ... View answer Accepted answer 2 votes I managed to solve this problem. When you halt the processor in the middle of the I2Cx communication with a slave, the slave might hold the SDAx line low on next start (or restart), in that way ... View answer 2 votes Honestly, I don't understand what do you mean. Capacitors are charged with charge carriers (electrons), and a source of these electrons can be either a voltage or a current source. Please be careful -... View answer Accepted answer 1 votes The trick is to consider the $y[n-1]$ and $x[n-1]$ signals as if they were some new signals not related to $y[n]$ and $x[n]$. Introduce the following substitutions:$$y[n-1] = w[n], \quad x[n-...

Yes, the equation you gave is correct. Please note that the uppercase letters are usually reserved for frequency domain and/or DC values. For time-varying signals such as an inductor voltage, the ...

There are two main ways to approach this problem, namely (1) time domain and (2) frequency domain. You are thinking about the signal in the time domain, and you are trying to understand the capacitor ...

A DAC, short for digital-to-analog converter, is an element that converts a number (digital input) to an analog value (analog output). For example, a 10-bit DAC has 2^10 = 1024 different levels it can ...

Assuming all voltage sources are referenced to the same point, voltage at the star point is Vs*(1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3) = V1/R1 + V2/R2 + V3/R3 Vs/Rp = V1/R1 + V2/R2 + V3/R3 This is Millman theorem. Once ...

You need to understand that input and output power from buck converter are the same, minus converter losses. Say on input you have 10 V and 10 A, with 50% duty cycle you will get on the output 5 V and ...

If the load has inductance, you must use freewheeling diode. Otherwise, you will probably damage the supply and/or MOSFET when breaking the current. You cannot change current of an inductor instantly. ...

Have a look at this post: https://math.stackexchange.com/q/164238 An excerpt from that post: If $p$ and $q$ are periods of $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ respectively, then any common multiple of $p$ ...

You have to define the clock frequency as follows: #define _XTAL_FREQ 8000000UL or as: #define FCY 8000000UL I use the latter definition. Try with both of these. One other thing - you need to set ...

You can consider using a TVS (transient-voltage-suppression) diodes. TVS diodes are placed from the point that you want to protect to ground. Basically, when the voltage is high enough, and you should ...

Here is the solution in $\mathcal{L}$-domain: $$V^-(s)\left(\frac{1}{R_1+\frac{1}{sC}}+\frac{1}{R_2}\right) = V_{in}(s)\frac{1}{R_1+\frac{1}{sC}} + V_{out}(s)\frac{1}{R_2}$$ $$V^+(s)=V^-(s)=0$$ ...

I am going to split this answer into two parts: (1) how does the voltage and current depend on frequency, and (2) how can voltage on one component be higher than the source voltage. PART 1. The Ohm's ...

This sounds like unstable power supply, but it could be something else, eg a glitch on the reset pin if the chip has one. FPGA devices usually do not have non-volatile memory for the bitstream. Note ...

As some of you have already indicated, CoolTerm is not able to fetch data fast enough to empty the PC COM port buffer. I did a trick with priorities in the task manager, where I've set the Realtime ...

You can think of a gate driver as a power amplifier. Most probably, you will try to drive this MOSFET/BJT using PWM output of a microcontroller, which usually has around $20~\text{mA}$ output ...