MarkU
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Generally, how do you describe the functions of the basic parts in a buck or boost converter? The parts are enumerated in the post
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I'm an applications engineer at Maxim Integrated (currently in merger with Analog Devices; competing with Texas Instruments). As a resource, there's a lot of technical papers (called applications ...

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Raising Amperage
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According to the datasheet for the simple switcher LM2577 https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm2577.pdf?ts=1607298375356 on page 16, "STEP-UP REGULATOR DESIGN PROCEDURE", they specify the ...

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Are analog CRT oscilloscope becoming rare?
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I don't really think this is a matter of opinion. As a basic diagnostic tool, either a traditional CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) oscilloscope or a DSO (Digital Sampling Oscilloscope) will give mostly ...

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Which formula is correct for a Digital-Analog-Converter?
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This is the classic 'fencepost problem'. \$2^N\$ is the number of codes, and \$2^N-1\$ is the number of steps between codes. Since the MSB transition is defined as \$V_{ref}/{2}\$, the full-scale code ...

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Voltage regulator goes to 0 with 100 ohm resistor
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See page 9 of the datasheet: These regulators are not internally compensated and thus require a 1.0 uF (or greater) capacitance between the LP2950/LP2951 output terminal and ground for ...

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Digital to analog design question
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To rephrase the requirements: it sounds like you need two 20mA current sources (with 5V compliance voltage), one current source is always enabled and the other current source is controlled by a 200ms ...

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Keepout area (courtyard) around ICs for hand soldering
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Seems like you've done due diligence in your reviews. Maybe place the bypass capacitors at 2mm since simulation suggests it will be ok, but make sure the routing supports manual placement at 0.5mm. ...

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I2C bus arbitration - communication layer
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I2C arbitration works at the datalink level. I2C uses open-drain connections: SDA is low if any device pulls it low, but SDA is high only when all devices are not pulling it low. So during I2C slave ...

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If ROM has no data inputs, how is it able to produce data outputs?
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Petzold is making a distinction between "address bus" and "data bus". Arguably both could be classified as some kind of "data" in some sense, but that's not what Petzold means here. (Often technical ...

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Plug identification DB25 style
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Looks like Hirose DX20-50P(55) or DX40-50P-55. Hard to tell from your photo but I think it looks smaller than Centronics. Suggest you check the measurements in the catalog to confirm. digkey.com ...

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Can't identify HT74 Texas Instruments smd chip
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The ordering information table on page 1 shows two pacakges that have the "HT74" topmark, SSOP "DB" and TSSOP "PW". The "PW" comes in different size tape/reel, but since you'll probably just be buying ...

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What components have a MSL of 5 and 6?
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The industry-standard JEDEC MSL values imply a component's "floor life" (time spent in storage bin before being mounted on a PCB) at a specified temperature and relative humidity, as well as standard ...

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Maximum current is drawn from a cell when it is shorted. But, why?
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Here is the false assumption: So, for a given cell, I assumed V to be constant. In a real battery, the voltage decreases as current is drawn. A real battery is complicated, but we often model a ...

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PCB trace capacitance
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Capacitance per unit length is proportional to trace width (neglecting edge effects). The basic "Parallel-plate capacitor" capacitor formula for capacitance is $$Capacitance = \epsilon * Area / ...

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Battery powered Arduino on a breadboard
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Here's a photo of a minimal ATmega328 on solderless breadboard (this is equivalent to an Arduino Pro Mini or an Arduino UNO without the USB interface): Note the small 0.1uF ceramic capacitors, with ...

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Why 12v batteries but not 110/240 corresponding with the mains?
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Batteries are DC, not AC. When 240VAC is rectified to DC, the resulting voltage is higher by a factor of sqrt(2). So 240VAC becomes 340VDC after rectification. There is no way to make a battery that ...

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Equal voltage, but not shorted?
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In an op-amp circuit, a feedback network maintains the two inputs at (very nearly) the same voltage. Usually the feedback network around an op-amp assumes two independent KCL equations, where the ...

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Buttons for a timing game
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Connect both buttons to the same ATmega328 port (e.g. PORTB), then read the status of all 8 of the PORTB pins simultaneously by reading PINB, the PORTB Port Input Pins register. See ATmega328 ...

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ATMega328: How to select alternate function on a pin
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Specific to timer/counter control register A, register TCCR2A bits 7:6 COM2A1:0 control whether or not the internal OC2A signal overrides the normal PORTB3 pin behavior. See datasheet section 17.11.1 ...

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Why is the signal always entered into minus port in inverting op-amp?
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The assumption that the inverting (-) and non-inverting (+) terminals are at approximately the same voltage, is only valid when the op-amp is configured for negative feedback and its output is not ...

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How can you cheaply make an output pin source/sink about 5 amps of 5vDC, 12vDC, 24vDC, and 120vAC selectively?
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In the semiconductor industry, IC manufacturers use ATE (Automated Test Equipment) designed for maximum versatility -- and these ATE machines are expensive, costing many hundreds of thousands of US ...

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What are the units of the measurements that come out of an accelerometer?
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On the LIS2DH, the 16-bit register paris OUT_X_H / OUT_X_L, OUT_Y_H / OUT_Y_L, OUT_Z_H / OUT_Z_L are left-justified, regardless of which resolution is selected. In other words, the 0x80 bit of OUT_X_H ...

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How do Ethernet cables/USB cables send binary 0?
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The most basic CMOS/TTL logic uses a voltage within a specified min/max range to represent either a "logic low" 0 or a "logic high" 1. These include the discrete logic gates like 7400 / 7402 / 7432 ...

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Help with resolving warning "inferring latch(es) for signal or variable "..", which holds its previous value in one or more paths through the process"
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I'm guessing that like me, you probably come from a software development background and are now learning HDL. The when others case is empty; that's where you are implicity making all the latches. You ...

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Electrical symbols, what does a dot before a triangle mean?
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Just another way of drawing a logic inverter ("NOT"). The triangle-with-bubble is an inverter: logic high input yields logic low output, and vice versa. Usually the bubble is shown on the output, but ...

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Generate an 40MHz Clock on an FPGA with 100Mhz clock
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The simple prescaler you've implemented follows the formula $$ fout = fMaster \div (2 * (1 + prescalerN)) $$ where fMaster is the 100MHz master clock input and prescalerN is the prescaler reload value....

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RS232 non-inverting level shifter
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You won't find a non-inverting TTL/CMOS to RS232 level translator, because there's no market for such a thing. Developing an integrated circuit design is very expensive, so it won't be done unless ...

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Code to add two 4bit numbers in verilog doesn't work
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Typo in your code: full_adder F1(SW[3], SW[1], carry[0], LEDG[1], carry[1]); should instead be full_adder F1(SW[5], SW[1], carry[0], LEDG[1], carry[1]);

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How differential amplifiers help reduce noise?
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Differential amplifiers (ideally) eliminate common-mode noise. Real differential amplifiers always have some small mismatch between the positive and negative inputs, so CMRR is given as a figure of ...

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quartus signaltap not accurate?
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I assume your question is, why doesn't Signaltap agree with your oscilloscope. Quartus Signaltap isn't a simulator, it's an embedded logic analyzer (synthesized into the FPGA configuration, alongside ...

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