Egypt's electrical wiring regulations conform with IEC standards.
It is likely that what you are describing is what is typically done and not what is required to be done. ie it is likely that the installation is technically illegal. This does not mean that anyone in authority cares enough to do anything about it.
This document International electrical
standards & regulations shows wiring standards applicable worldwide. On page 2 it shows Egypt as using IEC standards. Sockets are meant to be to the IEC German standard - page 16 - two pin no polarised with side wiping earth contact.
- GENERAL CIRCUITS
These circuits supply both
lighting points and socket outlets.
The rating of the protective device
is usually 16 A.
There is no limitation of the number
of outlets on a circuit. This limit is
calculated according to expected/
probable use of the circuit. Socket
outlets are generally of the 2P+E
type “German". These plugs are
All German socket outlets are
earthed. In general, the protective
conductor is distributed throughout
all circuits. For class II devices
< 2.5 A, the Euro-plug is used.
The wire cross-section of the
fixed installed cables is normally
1.5mm² (protected by a 16 A Circuit
Earthing is local, usually through
a foundation earthing arrangement.
All metallic services shall be
bonded (gas and water pipe,
heating, waste systems, etc.) with
a 10 mm2. In bathrooms the local
equipotential bonding could have
a cross sectional area of 4 mm2.
Neutral is re-earthed in the control
panel. A protective conductor
is distributed to all socket outlets.
World electricity standards
As JohnD said - a GFI / ELCB (ground fault interupter / earth leak circuit breaker may disconnect the circuit when you feel shocks (depending on how much leakage is present, but with the system you describe this could be a major inconvenience.
I'm not suggesting that the following is sensible or practical or even safe - but it is a system that SHOULD work, but which is non standard and may violate local regulatory standards:
Provide a local ground with waterpipe or similar.
- This MAY exist already and MAY already be connected to neutral at your switch board. @Alephzero noted that connection to a "waterpipe" at random locations in a residence may be both dangerous - and also illegal in some countries. I agree that this is unwise. What I intended to convey is that the point where a main metal water-pipe for a home enters the ground is usually a good point for either an earth rod and/or for connection to the metal water-pipe. In some regulatory systems it is required that a suitably designed ground system be established AND that this is bonded to the water pipe at the point of entry to the ground (soil). This ensures that the ground-connection is a good one (by design) and that the formal and water-pipe ground connections do not develop a potential difference during a major fault, due to one or other having a lower resistance to true ground.
Provide 3 pin appliance sockets with ground connection.
Extend ground as above to socket ground.
Fit appliance with 3 pin plug and cord and connect body to ground wire.
Safe?: Probably but not certainly. IF your local system happens to provide high voltage to the body of an appliance, connecting ground may or may not be a 'good idea'.
Regulations and practices in NZ as an example:
Here is the related NZ code of practice for earthing. It is essentially certain that Egypt has equivalent standards documents available.
NZECP:25 1995 NEW ZEALAND ELECTRICAL CODE OF PRACTICE for EARTHING AND EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING of LOW VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
NZ electrical safety regulations and as DF here
Wikipedia Earthing Systems
Here is a worthwhile 76 page pdf from AVO on ground resistance testing
PDF A practical guide to Earth Resistance Testing