In my design - rugged computer - I have connected the digital gnd to the isolated CANbus gnd by mistake.
Does the CANbus standard state that it has to be isolated?
Can that connection harm the CANbus?
Can this connection harm the computer?
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No, it is optional. Some application-level standards like DeviceNet require galvanic isolation.
If there are various ground potential differences in the system, you may experience communication problems and error frames. Galvanic isolation is there to counter this. Nothing will break physically.
Not if the system ground is sound.