# How to design, build and test synchronous sequential circuits using D-Flip Flops?

I want to design, build and test synchronous sequential circuits by using D-Flip Flops.

I know how to analyze state diagrams but I don't now how to obtain a state diagram using just outputs.

P.S. : This is a school project for my logic lab class. I don't want a full answer but any help would be appreciated. I really couldn't understand how to start. Thanks in advance.

Use D flip-flops to design the circuit specified by the state diagram of following figure. The output of the circuit is Zi , that is the output of the circuit. (Black dots represent binary 1) • I think a good place to start would be to decide what your input will be. The simplest input would for example be a counter. I presume you have 6 outputs and 8 states, is that correct? (The final one appears the same as the first). In which case if you have 8 states, and wanted to use a counter, how many bits would you require? Building a counter with D-flip-flops is quite easy. Then you have to decide how to map that counter to the outputs (e.g. look up table? multiplexer? etc.). Hopefully that should help you get started. – Tom Carpenter May 13 '15 at 1:36
• I have finished the project using the 3 bit state inputs and counter with 3 D flip flops. Thank you for all the answers. – plumberry May 21 '15 at 19:35

You want to generate this sequence right?

 000 --> 00111
001 --> 00101
010 --> 10000
011 --> 11011
100 --> 00001
101 --> 10100
110 --> 11100
111 --> 11111


First you make 3 bit synchronous counter using D flip-flop. Use counter outputs as input variable for logic circuit to get respective output combination. First draw 3 variable (outputs of counter) K-map for Z1. Find boolean equation for the same. Repeat this for Z2, Z3, Z4 and Z5.

If you need more clarification let me know.

The idea here is to design a circuit that goes from one state to the next (line of Z_i values) on a clock edge or possibly clock edge plus enable input.

This is typically a Moore machine: all outputs only depend on your state variables. When building a Moore machine, you have to decide on your internal representation as well as how to decode your internal representation to your output values. This means, you will have to create both a) transition logic between states and b) output decode logic.

You can also build a special form of Moore machine called a Medvedev machine. It's a Moore machine where internal state and output coincide, i.e. they are the same.

Starting with a binary counter can be useful if you have the luxury of using a look-up table (LUT), where you provide an address into a piece of memory that outputs as many bits as you need in parallel. For hand-coding, it might not be the best starting point.

To find a proper encoding for your internal state, you would typically look at your output values and devise a clever way to reduce it. Find duplicate bits (groups of bits that are always the same per state), find symmetries, etc.

In your case, one thing that's immediately obvious is the symmetry in your states.

11111
00111
00101
10000
11011 <-- point of symmetry
00001
10100
11100
11111


Immediately, this means that you can use one bit in your internal representation to just switch all outputs around. Your pattern has a circular nature, so something like a Johnson counter comes to mind: state output state output

0000    11111
1000    00111
1100    00101
1110    10000
1111    11011
0111    00001
0011    10100
0001    11100
0000    11111


Notice how the Johnson counter transition is very simple, it's simply shift every bit right, take right-most state bit, invert, shift into first state bit: s2' <= s3; s1' <= s2; s0' <= s1; s3' <= not s0;

Make right-most Johnson counter bit switch state bit and output bit orders:

state   state    output   output
switched          switched
0000    0000     11111    11111
1000    1000     00111    00111
1100    1100     00101    00101
1110    1110     10000    10000
1111    1111     11011    11011
0111    1110     10000    00001
0011    1100     00101    10100
0001    1000     00111    11100
0000    0000     11111    11111


Notice how the inversion reduces your state space:

 state    outputs
switched
0000      11111
1000      00111
1100      00101
1110      10000
1111      11011


You will have to do the switching yourself using multiplexer-style logic q0' <= (s0 and q4) or (not s0 and q0) etc. Same for switched state inputs to your output logic: v0 <= (s0 and s3) or (not s0 and s0) etc.

You can now use Karnaugh maps to simplify your expressions. Then plug the multiplexer equations into your output logic expressions and you should be done.

Notice how this is one possibility. You could use a binary counter, you could use random states to get started etc.

For instance, logically, since none of your lines are the same, you technically only need ld(#states) bits to encode the information. This has the advantage of saving one flip flop. The disadvantage being that you have to devise state transition logic as well as output decode logic now.