# Does a transistor change the source of current? (re: esp8266 and infrared transmitter circuit)

I'm trying to connect an infrared transmitter LED to a microcontroller (ESP8266/ESP8285).

The infrared LED is a TSAL6200 with a forward current of 100 mA.

The ESP8285 datasheet shows max current ("Imax"?) of 12 mA so I think the GPIO pins can only provide 12 mA.

Therefore, I believe I need to use a transistor as a current amplifier. There are many examples of this. However I'm still learning the basics of transistors (and electronics!).

I'm going to use a BC547 NPN transistor which requires 700 mV for Base-Emitter saturation. (I also must make sure the current from Base-Emitter is low?)

So... if I connect the collector to the ESP8285 VIN (probably coming from a voltage regulator?) then the current will flow from VIN (voltage regulator?) to GND therefore the VIN (voltage regulator?) will be "providing" the current instead of the GPIO pin?

Can anybody tell me if I'm understanding correctly or explain anything I might be missing?

• Basically yes. The LED gets current from the supply. You put a resistor between the GPIO pin and the transistor base to limit the current. Dec 18, 2019 at 17:08
• No, do not connect the transistor's collector directly to the power supply voltage. The "load" (e.g. LED and series resistor) should be connected between the supply voltage and the transistor's collector. Dec 18, 2019 at 17:31

To be completely safe, you should probably limit the continuous current to about $$\40\:\text{mA}\$$. But if you are using this in some kind of pulsed mode, then of course feel free to go higher.

Let's assume you want to operate the IR LED at some current called $$\I_\text{LED}\$$. (I don't care what value you assign, for now.) Then you can use something along the lines of the following schematic:

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab

$$\3.0\:\text{V} \le V_\text{CC}\le 3.6\:\text{V}\$$ from the datasheet I looked at. Your IR LED has a forward voltage that is always low enough (see Fig. 4 on the datasheet) that the above circuit should probably work fine. (Yes, there are extreme cases where the above circuit would be marginal. But I think it is probably fine for most practical uses.)

In this case, adjust $$\R_1\$$ in order to adjust the current limit you want for the IR LED. As an approximation, try to use about $$\R_1\approx \frac{700\:\text{mV}}{I_\text{LED}}\$$. I've shown $$\10\:\Omega\$$ only as an example case. But you should adjust as you feel is appropriate here.

The value of $$\R_2\$$ has to supply enough recombination current for $$\Q_1\$$'s base, plus enough excess that $$\Q_2\$$ can maintain control, too. Assuming a modest $$\\beta_1\ge 80\$$, we find that $$\I_{\text{B}_1}\approx \frac{I_\text{LED}}{\beta_1=80}\$$. To be sure that the percent-change of the collector current of $$\Q_2\$$ doesn't vary too much, we should assume about $$\3-4\times\$$ that value for the current in $$\R_2\$$ when the I/O pin is active-high at $$\V_\text{CC}\$$. If we assume about $$\V_{\text{BE}_2}\approx 700\:\text{mV}\$$ and $$\V_{\text{BE}_1}\approx 900\:\text{mV}\$$ (to be generous), then the base voltage at the base of $$\Q_1\$$ will be about $$\1.6\:\text{V}\$$. Using the smallest possible value for $$\V_\text{CC}\$$, that means about $$\\ge 1.4\:\text{V}\$$ across $$\R_2\$$.

The actual computation is something like $$\R_2\approx \beta_1\cdot \frac{V_\text{CC}-V_{\text{BE}_1}-V_{\text{BE}_2}-V_{\text{IO}_\text{DROP}}}{3\times I_\text{LED}}\$$. The value "3" could be as high as "4", instead. But otherwise, that's about how to set it. Also, $$\\beta_1\$$ can be whatever you feel is likely. $$\Q_1\$$ will not be saturated (we hope), so the value can often be larger than I suggested above. Meanwhile, the value of $$\V_{\text{IO}_\text{DROP}}\$$ is the expected drop at the I/O pin due to the required source current. It's likely this value will be under $$\200\:\text{mV}\$$. (But it may still be useful to take it into account.)

Anyway, something close to the above circuit should be about right. Keep in mind that reducing $$\R_1\$$ will increase the IR LED current and that increasing $$\R_1\$$ will reduce the IR LED current.

And the value of $$\R_2\$$ isn't critical here. So just some close approximation should be fine, if you use generally approximate values in computing its value and finding a nearby standard resistor value.

## More Specific

Let's look at Figure 4 from your datasheet:

I've circled two locations in yellow color. This shows that you can typically expect about $$\\le 1.3\:\text{V}\$$ when driving the LED.

From the following:

You can see that the worst case is $$\1.6\:\text{V}\$$. So if you do a worst-case design and if you anticipate using as much as $$\I_\text{LED}=100\:\text{mA}\$$, then that's the worst case voltage. If you add up another $$\V_{\text{BE}_2}=700\:\text{mV}\$$ and $$\V_{\text{BE}_1}=900\:\text{mV}\$$ for the BJTs, then you get $$\3.2\:\text{V}\$$ as the minimum $$\V_\text{CC}\$$ for the above circuit to work well. Chance are, though, that these values are a bit excessive and that the above circuit does, in fact, meet the minimum $$\V_\text{CC}=3.0\:\text{V}\$$.

So that is why I'm not really worried much by the circuit I suggested. I think you will be fine with it. But of course, there are some remote possibilities that it start to move into slight saturation. If so, then the $$\\beta_1\approx 80\$$ is probably a good value to use. This will cover-over this remote possibility, I think. Bottom line is that if you use $$\\beta_1=80\$$ then I think you will produce a safe, workable design.

You would normally connect the transistor's emitter to Ground, and connect the LED and its current-limiting resistor between a positive supply and the transistor's collector. You also require a resistor between the transistor base and the ESP8285 GPIO pin

The positive supply may be the same supply as used for the ESP8285, or some other positiive supply. If a separate positive supply is used, the negative side of that supply must be connected to the ESP8285's Ground.

The BC547 isn't well suited for switching a 100 mA IRLED, because its maximum I_C is also 100 mA!

Better alternatives are the 2N2222A and BC337 NPN transistors which both have an I_C_max of 800mA.

Alternatively, you can use a MOSFET to switch the IRLED more efficiently. (my linked question also contains an example schematic for a NPN IRLED circuit including some calculations for the needed current limiting resistors)

The ESP8285 VIN pin is the input to the onboard voltage regulator. Yes, you can use the same power source that powers your ESP to also power your IRLED circuit. If that voltage is constant then you can limit the current to your IRLED with a simple limiting resistor. Otherwise, you need to look into a current limiting circuit. Or connect the VCC of your IRLED transmitter circuit to the output of a voltage regulator.

Therefore, I believe I need to use a transistor as a current amplifier.

No, you need to use a transistor as a switch (by saturating its base).

(again, you can alternatively use a MOSFET as a switch, which works differently)