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A schematic by Lattice Semiconductor includes the diagrammed D flip-flop. This D flip/flop accepts, among others, a Set/Reset signal.

I would have understood a Set signal. I would have understood a Reset signal. I would even have understood Set and Reset signals on separate lines. I cannot, however, understand a joint Set/Reset signal.

  -------------------
  |                 |
--| D             Q |--
--| CLOCK ENABLE    |
--|>CLOCK           |
  |                 |
  |    SET/RESET    |
  ------------------
           |

QUESTION

What is a Set/Reset signal, please?

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

For optional reference, here is the data sheet (1.5 MB) in which the D flip-flop appears, in Figure 3.2, page 9. I do not, of course, ask you to go to read a 52-page data sheet for me! (That would be my homework, not yours.) Therefore, the relevant quotes from the data sheet as far as I know are as follows.

Each logic cell includes ... a D-style flip-flop (DFF), with an optional clock-enable and reset control input.... [Sect. 3.1.1, page 9.]

... Signal description [is as follows].

  • Function: input.
  • Type: control signal.
  • Signal name: Set/Reset. (Footnote: if Set/Reset is not used, then the flip-flop is never set/reset, except when cleared immediately after configuration).
  • Description: Asynchronous or synchronous local set/reset shared by [a block of eight logic cells, each cell including a flip-flop]. [Table 3.1, page 10.]

One can externally disable the Set/Reset signal, presumably via multiplexing or high-Z pull-down, but I see nothing to decide whether the Set/Reset signal—when not disabled—should set the flip-flop or reset it.

Am I missing something?

If you know what a Set/Reset signal is, would you tell me?

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In addition to @Tom Carpenter's excellent answer, we have another way to verify that this interpretation is indeed correct.

Project IceStorm provides complete documentation of the bits that configure the LOGIC Tile. In particular:

LC_i[18] is the Set_NoReset bit. When this bit is set then the set/reset signal will set, not reset the flip-flop.

We can also see that the Flipflop can also be configured as a latch.

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In all likelihood it isn't really a "set/reset" signal, so much as a signal that can be configured to be either set or reset depending on how the device is configured. Note that in figure 3.2 (copied below for clarity), it says "flip-flop with optional [...] set or reset controls".

Similarly it will also be the configuration bits that disable the signal entirely if unused. You can see this in figure 3.2:

Fig 3.2

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Hm. Yes, your interpretation makes sense, but if you are right, then the schematic might have been more clearly drawn. They might have just added an XOR gate. Then it would have been clear. Therefore, your interpretation is helpful. I appreciate it. \$\endgroup\$ – thb Nov 22 '18 at 20:01
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    \$\begingroup\$ Since we have complete bitstream documentation for this FPGA, we can see further evidence that this interpretation is correct: “LC_i[18] is the Set_NoReset bit. When this bit is set then the set/reset signal will set, not reset the flip-flop.” \$\endgroup\$ – wrtlprnft Nov 22 '18 at 21:31
  • \$\begingroup\$ @wrtlprnft: if your comment were an answer, then I should be glad to upvote it. (Incidentally, Icestorm is precisely what I am trying to get up and running, so your hyperlink is most appropriate.) \$\endgroup\$ – thb Nov 22 '18 at 22:26
  • \$\begingroup\$ Note that an XOR gate may change the polarity of the signal. But it will not change the functionality from RESET to SET or vice versa. \$\endgroup\$ – Oldfart Nov 23 '18 at 14:18
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D types combine the set and reset pins with an inverter so that the set and reset pins are in opposite states, that prevents the forbidden state of neither set.

Source: Electronic Tutorials - The D-type Flip Flop

"The D-type flip-flop is a modified Set-Reset flip-flop with the addition of an inverter to prevent the S and R inputs from being at the same logic level.

One of the main disadvantages of the basic SR NAND Gate Bistable circuit is that the indeterminate input condition of SET = “0” and RESET = “0” is forbidden.

This state will force both outputs to be at logic “1”, over-riding the feedback latching action and whichever input goes to logic level “1” first will lose control, while the other input still at logic “0” controls the resulting state of the latch.

But in order to prevent this from happening an inverter can be connected between the “SET” and the “RESET” inputs to produce another type of flip flop circuit known as a Data Latch, Delay flip flop, D-type Bistable, D-type Flip Flop or just simply a D Flip Flop as it is more generally called.".

Source: Hyperphysics - Clocked D Flip-Flop

"The D flip-flop tries to follow the input D but cannot make the required transitions unless it is enabled by the clock. Note that if the clock is low when a transition in D occurs, the tracking transiton in Q occurs at the next upward transition of the clock.".

Output Example

If the DFF block were instead a D FF made from NAND latches it would look like this:

Internal Diagram

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I appreciate the answer. Unfortunately, I am unsure how the answer relates to the particular question I have asked. Perhaps I am not reading your answer right? Your answer speaks of set and reset pins but Lattice's flip-flop lacks such pins. Instead, Lattice's flip-flop presents a single, joint Set/Reset pin. \$\endgroup\$ – thb Nov 23 '18 at 10:52
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    \$\begingroup\$ The reason it lacks such pins is: "D types combine the set and reset pins with an inverter ...". \$\endgroup\$ – Rob Nov 23 '18 at 14:16
  • \$\begingroup\$ I see. You and I are talking about two different things. In the sense you mean, you are right. The synchronous D pin would work in the way you say. However, I was asking about Lattice's asynchronous Set/Reset pin. Thanks anyway. I think that your answer still has informative value in any case (though I should avoid upvoting insofar as the answer slightly misses the question asked), so please don't remove it. \$\endgroup\$ – thb Nov 23 '18 at 15:57
  • \$\begingroup\$ This answer correctly answers the question, as asked. You are free to choose another answer if you wish. By using an inverter they've combined the pins, there's no shorter answer, that is how they joined them. \$\endgroup\$ – Rob Nov 23 '18 at 16:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ This answer seems to describe D-type latches. While the storage elements in this FPGA series can be configured as latches, the much more dominant usage is as edge-sensitive flipflops. The Set/Reset signal we're talking about here is available in addition to the data, clock and enable signals of a D-type flipflop. There is no easy way to tell how they are actually implemented in silicon. There are many ways, many of which cannot simply be described with logic gates. \$\endgroup\$ – wrtlprnft Nov 23 '18 at 17:19

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