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Questions tagged [encoding]

The process of encoding converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. Decoding is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands.

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3 bit to 2 trit mapping scheme derivation

3 bit data can be converted to 2 bit trit to increase the bandwidth efficiency. I don't know how did one come up with such mapping technique. Is there any derivation for this? Will this mapping scheme ...
Isha's user avatar
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Self clock synchronization in NRZ-I encoding

I was going through NRZ-I encoding technique, somebody mentioned that long stream of 0's will cause loss of synchronization in NRZ-I encoding scheme. But how? What I understand is the receiver should ...
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Clock synchronization in ethernet PHY

I am beginning to start with ethernet PHY. As per my understanding, digital signal will be transmitted and we apply encoding scheme to incorporate clock information into the data signal. Can't we just ...
Isha's user avatar
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3 votes
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MEMS microphone encode to AAC low performance

I am looking for a solution to encode the data from a MEMS microphone to AAC LC. I have a small microcontroller that is very low power but that lacks the RAM required for encoding so I am looking for ...
www.jensolsson.se's user avatar
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Positionally aware 360° (or beyond) motor (DC or stepper)?

Most servo motors out there are driven within 180° (at least hobby ones). There are more bulky and expensive servos out there as well. Since, I have tight space constraints, I am looking for a ...
VPNer's user avatar
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How do we change the digital encoding method of a signal? (eg. From Unipolar NRZ to Polar NRZ)

We have different digital encoding methods like Unipolar, Polar, Bipolar, Manchester. I was working with stm32f411re and I saw USART uses Unipolar NRZ. So how do we change this encoding methods? I ...
Yuva Adhithyan's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
156 views

SystemVerilog error: Can't unroll generate for; Unable to unroll loop

I am trying to write a code that converts binary to thermometer code. Thermometer (a.k.a. unary) coding is frequently used in digital systems applications to represent a natural number. In a ...
TyzonKidd's user avatar
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Help needed with solving MIPS jump instruction encoding question

I am currently working on a project that involves understanding the encoding of MIPS assembly instructions and I am struggling with a question that I hope someone here can help me with. The question ...
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How do I successfully transfer MIDI OUT signal to Windows 7 (32 bit) Desktop PC? [closed]

Things I have: I have an old type MIDI input device (Piano Keyboard Panel) which has a MIDI "OUT" port (female type jack) that has 5 holes. (and no USB port). it has a 9V power input (AC ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
733 views

Manchester encoding clock rate

The statement given is Bi-phase Encoding The signal level is checked twice for every bit time, both initially and in the middle. Hence, the clock rate is double the data transfer rate and thus the ...
Rama Siva Subrahmanyam's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why use 128b/132b line coding?

Some background/research: for various reasons, many protocols use 8b/10b encoding, which encodes 8 bits of data in 10 bits of line code. However, doing so adds 25% overhead to the number of bits ...
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Unable to display entered digits via KEYPAD-PHONE in Proteus correctly

I've started doing some project that includes displaying entered digits via keypad phone in Proteus. I'll leave a screenshot below, so this post doesn't look undefined. You've probably seen this ...
schottky diode's user avatar
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164 views

Hamming code question

Suppose we have m data bits and n parity bits. In order for the Hamming code to function: $$m+n<2^n-1$$ If we have 3 parity bits we can have up to 4 data bits. But lets say we don't have 4 data ...
Jun Seo-He's user avatar
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2 answers
446 views

Digital data to digital signals with Non return to zero(NRZ)

NRZ codes share the property that voltage level is constant during a bit interval. High level voltage = bit 1 and Low level voltage = bit 0. A problem arises when there is a long sequence of 0s or 1s ...
S. M.'s user avatar
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What are the correct frame control bytes in IEEE 802.15.4 standard data frame encoding for using 32 bit addressing?

I am trying to implement a UWB ranging system using IEEE 802.15.4 standard data frame encoding, but the example I found only uses 16-bit addressing with a frame control byte of ...
Spencer Brennessel's user avatar
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Find Bps given a star graph

Today I wrote finals for the semester in the subject "Introduction to Telecommunications".1 question was like this: Suppose we have a star graph with 64 dots in it.That would mean we are ...
Jun Seo-He's user avatar
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How much data could be stored on a standard compact cassette using modern encoding?

My father and I recently dug out his old Commodore 64 from his basement and tried to revive it. Among other accessories, we also found his old Datasette drive, which is essentially a normal tape drive ...
DLCom's user avatar
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Bandwidth , C/No, FEC and Link budget

While computing Eb/No do I take data rate as the input to the FEC or do I take the data rate as the output from the FEC, i.e., with the overheads. Isn't the Eb/No implicit in the overall coding gain ...
Guru's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
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Manchester and NRZ coding schemes

How does NRZ recover the clock? For example, Manchester coding is a self-time scheme, but we still need to have DLL or PLL for the recovery, it can be done without those CDR circuits? and back to NRZ, ...
Hammam's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
525 views

Decoding a 433 MHz energy monitor

I am attempting to capture transmissions from my own energy monitor, a Watts Clever EW4009 for use with Home Assistant. I believe it is an FSK signal, with 250 um packets. I have captured several ...
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Difference between 2b1q and 2b1q with paired disparity

I have a question about 2b1q line code. Is there a modified 2b1q code with paired disparity option available? And if yes, which is the coding rule for a simple 2b1q and modified 2b1q code, plus the ...
Alin Tudor's user avatar
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1 answer
778 views

How does DPSK work? What are the advantages compared to BPSK?

I have two questions that I would appreciate some help with. Comparing BPSK and DPSK I noticed that BPSK has lower BER. Why is this? Are there other advantages of using one over the other? In what ...
fred's user avatar
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2 votes
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126 views

How does BICM work?

Can someone explain bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) in plain language, focusing on the practical mechanisms and properties rather than the deep analytical details? I found a few papers and ...
Polynomial's user avatar
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2 votes
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Help identifying encoding scheme for RF device

I have this RF encoder that I am trying to customize with an MCU. The remote control device uses an encoder called HS2260. I believe it is a clone of PT2262 device. I was able to get the waveform but ...
aeroengineer's user avatar
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633 views

How to interface a camera with a 4-pin aviation connector?

I'd like to use this kind camera on a development board. I want to make an invention and I need to use this specific camera, but none of the development boards that exist (from Arduino to the more ...
user204415's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
230 views

Are there any real world examples of encoding data in EM polarization?

Data can be encoded by modulating the frequency, amplitude and phase. But I can't find any references for encoding data in the polarization of EM waves (either analog or digital). This is probably for ...
Artium's user avatar
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Why bipolar encoding such as AMI is called bipolar?

In bipolar encoding, we use three levels: positive, zero, and negative. The voltage level for one data element is at zero, while the voltage level for the other element alternates between positive and ...
amjad's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do we communicate computers(NETWORK Adapter) using two different data encodings?

For example, one of the computers use NRZ encoding, and the other one use manchester encoding. How should the communication be? Or what would be the result if we used a repeater? Is it possible ?
Y.Alyaprak's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
35 views

JAWBONE NERD dongle => Normal dongle [closed]

I have a JAWBONE NERD DONGLE which is specifically connectable to Jawbone Icon. I'm trying to find a way to turn this into a normal dongle. I am not asking you to make the program; just please tell me ...
Nomis Mik's user avatar
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Does this digital line-encoding/keying scheme have a name?

"1" is a single low pulse of length T, followed by a single high pulse of length T "0" is a single low pulse of length 2T, followed by a single high pulse of length 2T This is similar to BFSK, ...
Greg Woods's user avatar
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2 answers
184 views

What is an "all pole source"?

For background I am not an engineer, and reading about linear predictive coding, so this question may be very trivial. I am trying to understand what a textbook means by referring to something as an "...
Leftover Salad's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
274 views

What kind of serial encoding is this?

I'm involved in some reverse engineering of a device I need to interface with. With what little I know, and being able to capture a single data transmission, I think I've narrowed down the encoding ...
Sparky961's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
4k views

How To extend bits in a VHDL code

I'm trying to do the following let's say bit extension in a generic way. First Considering B signal with an even number of bits (NBITS). here is an example: B = 10100011 Second, adding a zero bit ...
Mohammadmahdi Mohammadi's user avatar
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1 answer
346 views

Binary Data encoding and decoding format

I am trying to understand what is the meaning of this data coding format as shown in the following image. It is not simple binary to decimal conversion. Can anyone tell how this conversion formula ...
homecloud's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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Hardware/software needed to decode Differential Manchester?

I have a differential manchester encoded 0 to 5v data stream at 62500bps. What hardware do I need to get this into something I can work with, ie arduino, pi, etc? I have searched for chips/eval ...
David Sindar's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

First bit of NRZI

I was searching for Non-Return-to-Zero Inverted, but no references I couldn't find any reference about the first bit in NRZI. I know that, in NRZI, 1 refers to <...
D. LaRocque's user avatar
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2 answers
38 views

Smart encoding of 2 dimensional sensor data [closed]

I have a 2D position sensor which returns the pressed locations on it. For example, a sensor that 8x8 sized returns 64 points. It can give up to 1000 frames per second. All data must be send to GUI ...
Berker Işık's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
229 views

Understanding an unknown digital encoding

I'm trying to understand a certain undocumented digital protocol. It looks similar to Miller or coded mark inversion (CMI) encoding. So far I managed to decode the encoded data and get the expected ...
avian's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
931 views

ARM Instruction size vs Instruction encoding

I cannot make sense of the difference between 'Instruction size' and 'Instruction encoding' specially about ARM and Thumb ISA's as explained here: Can we say that Instruction size is 32 bits but its ...
alt-rose's user avatar
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How can line code polarity inversion happen?

One of the disadvantages of some line codes like NRZ-L or RZ is that if a sudden change in polarity occurs, then all received bits will be erroneous (flipped). How can such a sudden change in ...
osmak's user avatar
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1 answer
213 views

Finding the overhead and distance of an unknown code based on message making algorithm

for an information word M with m bits that is coded as following: M is coded into a word A using an unknown code that allows detection of not more than one error. the code word is the word obtained ...
hps13's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
892 views

Transmission distance rs485 vs ethernet

I have a question, why is rs485 limited to less than 100 meters at 10mpbs ( mbaud ) and is 100Base-TX ethernet applicable on 100 meters with 100 mbps bitrate i know that rs485 normally use a sort ...
PatBurg's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
494 views

I do not know what chip/driver to use for a 7 segment 4 digit display

I am looking to start a new electronic project. For this project i will be learning to code a 7 segment 4 digit display, however i am not sure what chip to use or how to approach the start of this ...
Alex Francis's user avatar
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1 answer
3k views

STM32 UART character encoding issues (can't decode using either ASCII or UTF-8)

first some specifics: STM32F411 Nucleo board, Atollic TrueSTUDIO v9.1.0, Debian linux 9.6. I am sending a telemetry string over the UART using the HAL. I am using the following code to construct ...
willanth's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
74 views

RFID for angle encoding

Can RFID be used as an alternative to e.g. non contact magnetic encoders? Suppose a 150 mm diameter steel disk submersed in seawater subject to violent movement. Is it possible to put e.g. 30 passive ...
Mik Doms's user avatar
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1 answer
84 views

Calculating throughput of BPSK channel with roll-off, error correction code, packet loss

A digital signal is transmitted with packets of: 240 bytes of information. control header of 10 bytes. reference signal of 700 μs/packet BPSK modulation. rolling factor of 0.25 1 MHz band. coding ...
Mart R's user avatar
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1 answer
100 views

source and channel encoding. can they be done together?

Why are source and channel encodings usually performed separately? Could they be made together? thanks!
Mart R's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
285 views

wifi baseband access

I've got an unusual use case (optical communications) that would benefit from access to the wifi baseband signal before it is upconverted/modulated at 2.5Ghz. However most modern wifi chips combine ...
rossmcbee's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

Does 8b/10b decoding take running disparity into account?

What's unclear to me in reading literature about 8b/10b encoding is how it is decoded. How an 8b word is translated to a 10b symbol clearly relies on the running disparity. But when it comes to ...
Ten Bitcomb's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
221 views

QI Charging - Differential Manchester encoding

The WPC-Design document reports that: "Transmitter use a differential bi-phase encoding scheme to modulate data bits in the Power Signal." which encoding method do they mean? - Differential ...
Luigi's user avatar
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