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Questions tagged [encoding]

The process of encoding converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. Decoding is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands.

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Finding the overhead and distance of an unknown code based on message making algorithm

for an information word M with m bits that is coded as following: M is coded into a word A using an unknown code that allows detection of not more than one error. the code word is the word obtained ...
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50 views

Transmission distance rs485 vs ethernet

I have a question, why is rs485 limited to less than 100 meters at 10mpbs ( mbaud ) and is 100Base-TX ethernet applicable on 100 meters with 100 mbps bitrate i know that rs485 normally use a sort ...
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59 views

I do not know what chip/driver to use for a 7 segment 4 digit display

I am looking to start a new electronic project. For this project i will be learning to code a 7 segment 4 digit display, however i am not sure what chip to use or how to approach the start of this ...
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257 views

STM32 UART character encoding issues (can't decode using either ASCII or UTF-8)

first some specifics: STM32F411 Nucleo board, Atollic TrueSTUDIO v9.1.0, Debian linux 9.6. I am sending a telemetry string over the UART using the HAL. I am using the following code to construct ...
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61 views

RFID for angle encoding

Can RFID be used as an alternative to e.g. non contact magnetic encoders? Suppose a 150 mm diameter steel disk submersed in seawater subject to violent movement. Is it possible to put e.g. 30 passive ...
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42 views

Can Binary to BCD conversion generalize to multiple of 8 bits?

I am trying to solve Problem 16 of Project Euler without using Big Integer libraries like GMP. I came across Binary-To-BCD algorithm to encode 8 bit number as corresponding digits in decimal ...
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23 views

Calculating throughput of BPSK channel with roll-off, error correction code, packet loss

A digital signal is transmitted with packets of: 240 bytes of information. control header of 10 bytes. reference signal of 700 μs/packet BPSK modulation. rolling factor of 0.25 1 MHz band. coding ...
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28 views

source and channel encoding. can they be done together?

Why are source and channel encodings usually performed separately? Could they be made together? thanks!
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88 views

wifi baseband access

I've got an unusual use case (optical communications) that would benefit from access to the wifi baseband signal before it is upconverted/modulated at 2.5Ghz. However most modern wifi chips combine ...
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25 views

Labelling on non-linear constellation

I have a symbols with constellation that does not, suit any known modulation type. For now call these symbols $C_i$, where i = 1,2,3..k. The transition probability of each symbol to another one is not ...
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236 views

Does 8b/10b decoding take running disparity into account?

What's unclear to me in reading literature about 8b/10b encoding is how it is decoded. How an 8b word is translated to a 10b symbol clearly relies on the running disparity. But when it comes to ...
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95 views

QI Charging - Differential Manchester encoding

The WPC-Design document reports that: "Transmitter use a differential bi-phase encoding scheme to modulate data bits in the Power Signal." which encoding method do they mean? - Differential ...
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495 views

What is problem with NRZ and how manchester line coding handles out of sync tx and rx clocks.?

I am reading about physical layer of the OSI model. Specifically the different ways in which digital bits can be represented as voltage levels, among the multiple types are: NRZ. Manchester encoding. ...
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2k views

Why the one-hot state encoding has an advantage in decoding compared to binary state encoding?

Before I asked the question, I've googled advantages of the one-hot state encoding compared to others such as binary and gray state encoding. I could understand one-hot's advantages and disadvantages ...
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1answer
540 views

8b10b encoding: Calculating running disparity for multiple words

I am designing a 8b10b encoder in SystemVerilog. The circuit has the ability to encode 1-16 bytes (8 bits/byte) in a single clock cycle. I have a question regarding calculating the running disparity (...
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972 views

Using cheap RF module encoding with UART in a commercial product

For my graduation project, I need to design a system that transmits several different data packets to the computer wirelessly. It needs to have a potential to be commercial product, so both functional ...
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296 views

How to implement 8b10b en/decoding protocol between two FPGAs?

I'm using two Xilinx FPGAs (one Kintex 7 and one Artix 7). The Kintex 7 is tied to its own system (OPAL-RT software, it is a simulation software that is an addon to Simulink which lets data be output ...
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5answers
283 views

How can I be sure that a multi-bit-per-symbol encoding schema exists?

(I came up with this question when I try to understand bit rate and baud rate.) Suppose I have some data to transfer. And the data is binary encoded as a data amount of N bits. If I use 2 symbols to ...
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57 views

Encoding 10-bit data on 2 8-bit analog channels

I have some (expensive) weird real time hardware with only two 12-bit ADC inputs vacant, and it needs to read 10-bit samples taken by a MCU with 8-bit PWM output ports. The ADC can take samples at ...
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1answer
183 views

A query on (7,4) Hamming Code

I have a query on (7,4) Hamming code. The generator polynomial for this is \$g(x) = x^3 + x + 1\$. The non-systematic code for the message signal \$m(x)\$ is \$c(x) = m(x)g(x)\$ The above procedure ...
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251 views

What is the way to implement 8b/10b encoder/decoder in FTDI chip?

What I want to do is interface a Visible Light Communication link I have made to a computer using USB. I am regenerating the clock from the data at receiver end so I need clock recovery transition ...
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2answers
8k views

Understanding the relationship between LoRa chips, chirps, symbols and bits

I'm trying to understand the actual relationship between LoRa chips, "chirps", symbols and bits. I don't mean just the equations that relate the various rates, but actually how these things relate ...
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1answer
84 views

Say one wishes to transmit a sequence of characters - “ABC”. What are the steps that are invariably done to enable this transmission of information? [closed]

I would like to elaborate on the same: Naturally, one would use the ASCII representation to first encode "ABC" into raw bits. The sequence would then become (in binary) "01000001 01000010 01000011". ...
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605 views

NRZ-Level encoding problems [closed]

NRZ-Level is a polar Encoding method to encode digital data to digital signal. DC component when the voltage level remains constant for long periods of time, there is an increase in the low ...
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2answers
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Spectral properties of EFM encoding

Data is written to CD/DVD using an encoding called eight-to-fourteen modulation, where each eight bits of data are encoded by fourteen bits on disk. The encoding was designed to give the encoded ...
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132 views

What is the electrical benefit of keeping a running disparity on a bus?

I've always been taught that an interface with no DC offset (the same amount of 1s and 0s when averaged over time) is desirable. To this end, often encodings like 8b10b will include a running ...
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702 views

In HDB3, does a 1 have opposite polarity to the last 1, or to the last V?

I am trying to understand HDB3, and in particular trying to find out whether the picture below which shows the encoding of a bitstring in HDB3 is correct or not: From what I understand, a ...
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923 views

4b/5b encoder/decoder

everyone I am working on a transceiver block as part of a final project for school. Part of the project involves developing a 4b/5b encoder. The documentation states that I have to "Devise a 4B-5B ...
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1answer
63 views

Is Turbo decoding modulation dependent?

I want to use the BER result of a turbo coded system from an article, but my system is not BPSK (and the article has discussed just the BPSK case). Now I wonder is Turbo decoder, modulation dependent?
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83 views

Density Evolution of LDPC codes

Can someone elaborate on the concept of density evolution? So far, my understanding is that density evolution is essentially how many ones there should be in each row and how many in each column of ...
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1answer
700 views

What does “capacity achieving code” mean?

I am an electrical engineer passed several courses in information theory and coding theory, however as I think now, I see that I have not understand the basic ideas in these concepts till now. We ...
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2answers
525 views

How is a one-hot code called, if zero is acepted, too?

All know the one-hot code (aka. 1-out-of-N code). This strict code has exact one One in each binary word. But what if I allow also zero Ones? A 4-bit onehot example: ...
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105 views

Mathematical Logic behind generating T0 codes

I'm doing a small project in college where I'm required to convert(encoding) between gray and binary codes and also for bus invert coding in verilog. Its a simple task really as I'm done with code for ...
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184 views

error with VHDL CODE FOR FFT

I have a VHDL code for implementing FFT using butterfly. Its 4 input and 8 output. There are 2 VHDL files one for fft package and the other for the architechture, inside the fft pachage the butterfly ...
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2k views

How to decode this 433MHz RF signal?

I'm receiving this RF signal from a temperature only weather station transmitter. But i can't figure out what encoding is being used. I can't seem to decode the binary. In order to rule out noise or ...
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4answers
506 views

Has fsk over wired communication channels ever been done?

I have done multiple searches to figure out if fsk encoding of binary data has ever been used in a "wired" communication scheme but have come up with very little. It seems, at least to me, that ...
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437 views

Matlab: Channel coding and modulation [closed]

This is a beginner level question on understanding modulation and channel coding. The confusion arises when I am trying to implement the concepts. Let's say I have the information bits as ...
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1answer
424 views

Error-Detecting Code and ASCII Character Code?

As ASCII character code uses seven bit to encode 128 characters and most computers manipulate an eighth-bit quantity as one byte and ASCII characters are stored one per eight bit, and an additional ...
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1answer
211 views

How to determine servo signal encoding

I have a TowerPro SG90 servo which matches the "JR" brand wiring discussed here where the servo's 3 wires are as follows: Red is + Black is ...
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2answers
406 views

Two phase frequency doubling a rotary encoder

I have a 600ppr quadrature encoder that I would like to get the highest possible resolution out of. I need sub arc/second accuracy for my project. I saw differential Manchester encoding as a solution ...
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1answer
1k views

UVC Compliant H264 Encoder for PAL/NTSC Analog Camera Modules

I've been looking for some weeks on a part/module and haven't found anything so far. I've been experimenting with streaming techniques using Logitech C920 webcam. This webcam has an embedded H264 ...
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1answer
589 views

How do you design a circuit to implement the Bipolar Line coding Technique?

Bipolar NRZ http://www.tutorialspoint.com/data_communication_computer_network/images/bipolar.jpg In this technique alternate 1's will have alternate polarities and 0's will be zero itself.
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2answers
80 views

Modelling current to remain in particular range for fixed simulation time

I am a novice in SystemVerilog. I wish to know how to model a 8-bit signal X to attain four levels for certain ranges of time. For example,let the legal values of X be from 40 to 80(40 < X < 80) ...
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2k views

What encoding is used in this signal?

I have a cheap wireless pool thermometer (AcuRite 617 1) and I'd like to intercept the temperature data at the receiver and use it with a computerized data-logging system. Conveniently, inside the ...
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2answers
11k views

Differential Manchester Encoding

I am trying to understand Differential Manchester Encoding. The way I understand it is that the representation depends on the previous bit. If the previous bit was 0 there is a transition, but if it ...
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2answers
478 views

Coding a priority encoder

Let's say I have a 25bit priority encoder. So each input pin from \$i_{24}\$ to \$i_0\$ has its distinct priority in our encoder. That means that if more than one inputs are active, the encoder will ...
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2answers
4k views

Does a table that shows how 8b/10b encoding tries to ensure running disparity on a transmission line

In telecommunications, 8b/10b is a line code that maps 8-bit symbols to 10-bit symbols to achieve DC-balance and bounded disparity. In this case we take each 8 bit data and map it to a 10 bit symbol. ...
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159 views

Analog to Digital Schemes - using different implementations?

We all know the standard(at least traditional) ADC with output being the binary representation in base 2. However, there are a variety of other encoding schemes that are much better and less prone to ...